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43 Cards in this Set

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The adenohypophysis is what?

The neurohyphoytsis is what?
adeno=anterior pituitary

neuro=posterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary embryological origin?
Rathke's pouch
6 anterior pituitary peptide hormones?
GH
LH, FSH
TSH
ACTH
Prolactin
2 posterior pituitary hormones?
ADH, Oxytocin
somatotropes secrete?
GH

40% of ant pit tissue
corticotropes secrete?
ACTH

20% of ant pit tissue
thyrotropes secrete?
TSH
gonadotropes secrete
gonaotrophic hormones which are
Leutinizing hormone and
FSH
lactotrophes secrete
prolactin
acidophils?

acidophilic tumor?
somatotrophes

lots of GH secreted
magnocellular neurons are where?
paraventricular and supraoptic regions of hypothalamus
What controls the release of hormones from the post pit?

FROM THE ANT PIT?
ant -nerves and hormones

post-just nerves
the hypophoseal portal system is the delivery system to what part of the pituitary?
anterior
GHrH and GHiH are from where?

GHiH aka?
hypothalamus

somatastatin
PIH from where? Function?
hypothalamus, PIH inhibits the release of prolactin from the ant. pit.
somatotropes secrete GH (aka somatotropin) which does what? 4
stimulates:
body growth
secretion of IGF-1
lypolosis
inhibits the action of insulin on carbohydrate and fat metabolism
corticotropes secrete ACTH (aka cortotropin) which does what? 2
-stimulates production of glucocorticoids and androgens by the adrenal cortex.
-maintains the size of zona reticularis and fasciulata of the adrenal cortex.
thyrotropes secrete TSH (aka thyrotropin) which does what? 2
stimulates the production of thyroid hormones (T3/T4) by thyroid follices.
-it maintains the size of the cells (deficiency of iodine=increase in cell size)
gonadotropes secrete FSH and LH which do what?
FSH-stimultates the production of ovarian follices and regulates spermatogenesis in the testes

LD-causes ovulation and formation of the corpus leuteum as well as production of progesterone and estrogen in the ovaries, testosterone in the testes.
Lactotropes and mamotropes secrete prolactin which does what?
stimulates milk secretion and production
Which hypothalmic releasing factors are inhibitory?
PIH and GHiH (somatastatin)
Which 2 hormones have an effect on most all tissues of the body?
GH and thyroid hormone
somatotropic hormone (GH) metabolic effects? 5
-increased rate of protien synthesis in the cells (enhances protien depositionGH
-increased mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue
-increased serum Free FA's and usage
-a decreased utilization of glucose thoughout the body
GH ENHANCES PROTIEN/FAT USE AND CONSERVES CARBOHYDRATES
GH enhances? 6
-protien deposition
-AA transport through cell membranes
-RNA translation
-increased nuclear transcription-forms RNA
-decreased protien catabolism
FA's to Acetyl Coa-energyGH
GH promotes the use of ________ for energy?

This can lead to __________
fats and protiens

ketogenesis, fatty liver
GH's effect's on serum glucose and insulin?
both increased
type 2 diabetics are _________ by insulin.
not as affected, they have a sor of insulin resistance.
For GH to be effective you nust have ? (2)
insulin and carbohydrates
GH affects what part of bone growth?
the long bone. increases osteoblasts.
GH, what lack of mediators cause dwarfs/pygmies?
IGF-I (somatomedin C)
GH secretion increased by? 5
starvation
hypoglycemia
low FA's
excitement
trauma
protien deficiency in children?
kwashiokor
k
GH pathway?
GHRH-adenyl cyclase-cAMP-Ca= channels-GH release
The major controlling factor of GH release is?
the overall state of the nutrition of the tissues, especially protien nutrition.
a decrease in secretion of all of the anterior pituitary hormones is called?
panhypophopituitaryism
a generalized decrease of all of the anterior pituitary hormones in childhood leads to?
dwarfism-all parts are in propotion, but the overall rate of growth is decreased.

panhypophopituitary dwarfism-no puberty (30%)

african pygmy/leon lehi-not enough igf-i/somatomedian c
acidophilic cells of the anterior pituitary become excessively active-dz's?
gigantism-before plates fuse

acromegaly-after plates fuse, only the membranoeous bone and tissues continues to grow.(kyphosis, organomegaly)
supraoptic hormone?

controlled by?
ADH (vasoprossin)

-osmoreceptors (regulated by the osmosis)
dilute-inhibition
concentrated-stimulation
paraventricular hormone?
oxytocin
ADH/oxytocin similarities/differences?
polypeptides with 9 AA's

changes is postition 3/8
No ADH has what effect?
we lose salt and water
hyperkalemia
volume loss/shock
dilute urine
oxytyocin effects?
-contraction of the pregnant uterus
-milk ejection (letdown)
Other affectors of ADH? 2
atrial stretch receptors (inhibit)

carotid/aortic receptors (stimulate)