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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Potential Hazards
Electrical
Physical
Chemical
Radiation
Noise Pollution
Laser Use in the OR
Physical Hazards
Anesthetic Gases
Chronic environmental exposure
General Anesthesia
Halogenated agents
Nitrous Oxide
nitrous adverse effect
Nitrous: effects hematopoietic system and neural cells (not so with chronic exposure)
What are Trace Gases?
Any substance present in the atmosphere of the work environment in a concentration exceeding the allowable percentage as defined in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Standards (NIOSH) criteria
Trace Gas Concentrations
Measured and expressed in parts per million (ppm) and represent a volume to volume ratio.
Example:
100% of any gas is 1 million ppm
1% of a gas is 10,000ppm
Measured over 8 hour period and averaged over time
trace gases In the OR…per NIOSH
The allowable level of exposure, using
a time-weighted average, is:

25ppm of nitrous oxide

2ppm of a halogenated agent

0.5ppm of halogentated gas with nitrous
How can trace gases in the OR be minimized?
Scavenging Equipment
Bioenvironmental Checking
Checking the anesthesia machine and testing for leaks
Daily and Quarterly
Minimize turning on agents before face mask applied
Administer 100% O2 before removing the face mask or endotracheal tube
Empty the re-breathing bag into the waste gas scavenging system before disconnecting the breathing circuit
Chemical
Methylmethacrylate
to cement prostheses to bone or repair bone defects
OSHA established 100ppm for 8 hours for factory workers (resp, cutaneous and GU problems)
90 ppm during preparation time
scavenging system
Noise Pollution
Sounds: ……………...
Continuous background noises is 75-90db by OR “hum”
OSHA
Safe noise exposure of 90 db for 8 hours
Each increase in 5db halves the exposure time (10 db = 2 hours)
Besides hearing loss….
Radiation
Teratogenic and long-term genetic effects
Technologic advances in radiologic equipment
Do get exposed
Film badges/pocket dosimeters
Electrical
Electrical and Electronic Devices greatly improve patient care
Subject Patient and OR personnel to risks
Electrosurgery/Electrocautery
“Bovie”
Generates high frequency currents (up to 1 million Hz) which generates heat
Doesn’t cause cardiac disturbances
“Return Plate”