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156 Cards in this Set

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Pater Familias
patriarch; has full legal rights over everyone and everything
Patria Potestas
absolute power of pater familias
Mater Familias
wife of pater familias; head women of the house
Matrona
a married woman; her main purpose is to bear children
Iudicum Domesticum
Roman version of a family meeting
Menarch
age when girls can bear children
Bulla
pouch on a chord worn by boys
Sponsilla
betrothal or engagement
Conferreatio
strictest type of marriage; woman becomes the man's property
Manus/ Manum Viri
the term of a woman becoming a man's property
Coemptio
type of marriage where a woman is purchased by a placing a coin on a scale
Usus
most lax form of marriage; wife avoids becoming the husband's property by spending 3 nights a year away from home
Tunica Regalia
wedding dress that the bride sleeps in the night before and wears at her wedding
Flammeum
yellowish colored wedding veil
Dextrarum
the ceremonial joining of hands (used in usus wedding)
Pronuba
bride's matron of honor
Camillus
un-orphaned boy that carries around the bride's sacrifice
Cena Captialis
the wedding feast
Lar Compitats
3 coins carried by the bride
Produba
miniature honeymoon bed the couple puts out for the gods to use
Structure of Roman Society
1 Imperial Domus
2 Senators
3 Equestrians
4 Commons
5 Freed People
6 Slaves
Roman Citizens
only adult males; women and children are not counted. citizens had military duties. citizens could marry, hold office, and vote; they could not by punished without trial
Civis Romanis
right of Roman citizens to a trial
In 4 BC there were ____ Jews in Rome
8000; freed Jews then bought other Jews
How was status decided?
by family background (NOT WEALTH)
Funeral processions often included wax masks of ancestors. What are they called?
Imagos (images)
What is the oldest known written code of laws
the Code of Hammurabi
What is one of the outward signs of a consuls imperium?
Body guards/lictors, fasces, cural chair
What would young boys and girls wear to ward off bad heath ?
Bulla
Who wore a pilleus?
freed slaves (little cap)
During the last phase of roman history what sort of people ruled Rome?
Emperors
What roman value entails respect towards state, family and gods?
Pietas
What is a salutatio?
When clients gather at patron's house
Who am i- I have made my family proud of me, equestrian but a consul, cousin will take on my business, I am 1st person in family to serve my state??
Novus Homo
What is a flammelum?
a yellow-orange veil worn by brides
How was status decided in Rome?
By family background
Who were the plebeians?
the common people of Rome, vast in number but also not slaves
Who were the patricians?
higher class than plebs, but began as a small group of land owning families. eventually faded out
Who were Nobiles?
politicians or businessmen
Who wore gold rings and purple stripes on their toga and had families engaged in business?
Equestrians
Who were the commoners, the unwashed masses?
Vulgus
A plain woolen shirt, causal wear
Tunica
A formal garment for men
Toga
Toga Praetexta
toga with a wide purple sheet; worn by children and elected officials. it symbolizes protection
Toga Virilis
a man's toga with a thin purple stripe
Toga Candida
a super white toga worn by candidates for office
Toga Picta
covered in all purple, worn by prestigious military people
Women wore this, it was pinned at the shoulders and open at the sides
stolla
Outer garment worn by women
palla
the only women who wore togas were...
prostitutes
the Tria Nomina consisted of...
Praenomen, Nomen, and Cognomen
How are adopted sons named?
they take on their full name of the father, ending with his old nomen with -ius
Women usually had a feminine version of their father's
nomen
Cliens
clients
Sportula
a package that patrons hand out to clients at the salutatio; sometimes food, money, or legal support
Patron
a person who takes on a client and gives them assistance in return for tasks or favors
Egenus
people who were too poor, didn't qualify to become a client
Who was the Pater Familias
legal owner of everything in a family, guardian of religious rituals, he was the only male with full legal rights over everyone
Patria Potestas
power of the father; his power as pater familias
Res Publica
when the Romans no longer liked the monarchy
the Magistracy was Collegial, meaning...
more than one person holds the office at a time
Characteristics of the Magistracy
-are elected
-1 year terms
-made up of different offices
-age requirement for different offices
Consuls
the top of the Magistracy; 2 at a time for 1 year terms. Even counted years by who were consuls 'in consulship of x and y'. each had veto power over the other
Age requirement for consul
42 yrs
Lictors, Fasces, and Curule Charis were symbols of...
the Consuls
What were the 2 main powers of the consul?
Imperium- power over the people
Auspicium- power to consult the gods
The offices of the Magistracy below the Consul are part of the
Cursus Honorem
Offices that make up the Cursus Honorum
Quaestor, Aedile, Praetor
lowest wrung of the magistracy that looked over finances and records; age as many as 20 at one time
Quaestor
Office in Cursus Honorum; age requirements 36yrs, 4 elected each year, in charge of urban affairs and games
Aedile
Office just below a consul; ran the judicial system
Praetor
Tribune
elected to represent the plebs, could propose legislation, receive immunity, and veto laws that they didn't like
Censor
takes the census every 5 years; they controlled power by keeping track of people's wealth. Had to have been a consul first
Dictator
office held no longer than 6 months, was appointed in times of crisis
Senate
must have been elected to the magistracy, not an elected body, no legislative power but were a body of advisors
Assemblies
were summoned, met only when asked and voted only on the subject they asked about, voted orally
the 3 voting bodies were...
Comitia Centuria, Comitia Tributa, and Concilium Plebis
Voting body made up of Consul, Praetors and Censors. Asked about treason, legislation. Were divided into centuries by wealth, centuries 1 vote per 193
Comitia centuriata
Voting body made of plebs
Concilium Plebis
Voting body made of 35 tribes by geography, are allowed to pass legislation. Only members who had the means could pick up and go to Rome when asked to vote
Comitia Tributa
Mos Maiorum
the custom of the ancestors
Patria
means country
Dignitas
personal worthiness based on Roman values
Auctoritas
how much dignitas you have gives you Auctoritas; it is a characteristic you have that makes others do things for you
Virtus
manly courage;
451 BC: decimviri wrote them, first written code of law that burned up
12 tables
Populares
they go to people to try to get things done, tried to get people to vote how they wanted
Optimates
traditional old men, usually didn't like to involve the mob, thought they knew best
Who were the members of the first Triumvirate?
Pompey, Caesar, Crassus
Who was Octavius
Caesar's adopted son, became Emperor when Caesar was assassinated
the heart of Roman politics, games, economics, religion, and markets
the Forum
Foris
means outside
the Regia was
a very important building that burnt down a lot, became the home of the chief pope of Rome
Temples in Rome were called
Vesta
shops were placed near this place in the forum, used as a beautiful mulch-purpose building
Basilica
The Curia was the
Senate House
Rostra were
places where public speakers stood
a Carcer
a jail, people rarely made it out you went there and you died
Lapis Niger
the black stone; people didn't really know what it was for but it was very revered by the Roman People
Nobiles
worked tirelessly for no pay in government, army army or religion
Equestrians
had enough bank$$ to compete with the upper class
Libertini
the freed people of Rome who tried to earn money and make a better life for themselves
Poor
had to work to survive
Slaves
property without rights who were forced to work
Aristocrats earned a living by
not labor, but being moral
Ponitfex Maximus
the highest office of aristocrat, the chief priest (still earned no salary)
What were the two divisions of the working class?
Skilled and Unskilled workers
Collegia
guilds in the working class, sort of like unions
Traza
a bank
Flaminius
the first Roman portrait on a coin
Diocletian wrote it in 301 AD to stabilize the economy
Edict of Prices
Vilicus
the slave that was the overseer of the other slaves
the building where the slaves were locked up at night
Ergastulum
Peculium
a small savings that could be earned by slaves to eventually buy their freedom; an incentive for good behavior
Manumission
legal process of freeing a slave
What was Saturnalia
a holiday that honored Saturn that was held in December; as part of the festivities the slaves and citizens reversed positions (partially)
Libertina or Lebertinus
legally freed man or women; had legal status
Libertinus
when a slave is freed he becomes the client of his master; had social status
Obsequium
the obligation that said a freed slave still had to respect his old master and obey him without question
Operae
slaves owed this to their old master, they were donated days of labor each year
Pudicitia
a stance or position of a woman that symbolizes chastity
What are the 3 parameters of construction?
structural requirements, materials, and techniques
What is unchangeable and changeable about construction?
unchangeable: laws of physics, properties of material
changeable: designs and technology
What is the sedimentary rock that is very soft?
Tufa
What is the very hard stone used for foundations and roofs?
Basalt
What is another name for Limestone?
Tavertine
What is the soft erosive rock that is easy to cut but impermenant?
Peperino
What are the 2 parts of a wall?
Face: outside
Core: inside
What was the cut blocks method of a wall?
Ashlar Masonry
What was the wall method of stacking regularly shaped rocks that fit well together?
Cyclopean Masonry
What was the easier method of wall making and what did it involve?
Mortar and Rubble: used fired bricks and lime, sand, clay and water mortar
Roman concrete
Opus Caemnticum
What special ingredient in Roman mortar or concrete made the bond super strong and water proof?
volcanic sand
What is the wall pattern of uncut stacked stones held with mortar?
opus incertum
What is the wall pattern that uses pyramid bricks to make a diamond shape pattern?
opus reticulatum
What is the wall pattern that simply uses arranged bricks?
opus testaceum
How was wood durable?
withstands tension
How was stone durable?
withstood compression
What form of rectangular arch was used that did not withstand tension well?
post and linel
What doorway method used stone and compression?
the arch
What was the wall pattern of a row of arch after arch?
a barrel pattern
Which revolution in Architecture came after mortar?
the Dome
the hold in the top of a dome also called the eye
Occulus
what is the tending of arches to push outward
lateral thrust
What was Nero's palace built in 64 AD?
Domus Aurea
what sort of tricks gave domes stability?
hollow bricks, relief arches, occulus, and carved patterns to lighten the core
who in invented the inverted siphon?
Archimedes
what percentage of aqueducts were above ground?
only 10%
who was the man that delivered water to the insulae and other houses?
Aquarius
what were the water storage towers called?
castellum aquae
what was the Cloaca Maxima?
the giant sewage and drain system for the Forum
What was the laundry service?
Fullonica or Fullery
What were the 4 'humors' that Aristotle believed were important to health and medicine?
hot, cold, dry, damp
who was the famous doctor that was first a gladiator?
Galen
Why did docs practice dissecting on animals?
it was illegal to dissect a person or human
who was the 2nd king of Rome that organized religion?
Numa Pompilius
-made college of priests
-created religious calendar
-gods got names and became more personal