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59 Cards in this Set

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What factors encouraged exploration?
-The desire to grow rich and spread Christianity
-Advances in sailing technology
How did the "spirit of the renaissance" contribute to exploration?
-merchants had power
-wanted to increase knowledge of lands
-spread religion
How does the phrase " God, gold, and glory" summarize the Europeans' motives for exploration?
-to spread the word of God
-to get riches
-o be glorified for explorations
What is the Treaty of Tordesillas?
-A treaty written by Pope Alexander VI
-Between Spain and Portugal
-Drew line (line of demarcation)
-All lands to east for Portugal
-all lands to west for Spain
How did the treaty of Tordesillas ease tensions between Spain and Portugal?
-Stopped rivalry between Spain and Portugal
-Kept peace
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas reveal about Europeans' attitudes toward non-European lands and peoples.
-Treated lands and people as property and not human beings
-Believed they owned them
How did European Domination of the Indian Ocean trade eventually impact Europeans back home?
-goods from India were less expensive
-More Europeans could afford them
Why did so many nations rush to establish trading posts in India?
-cheaper good from the east
-increase trade
-get rich
How were the Dutch able to dominate trade in the Indian Ocean?
-became leading sea power (20,000 ships)
-had help from the English
-Dutch East India Trading Company was richer and more powerful so they drove English out and had dominance over India
How did the arrival of Europeans affect the peoples of the East in general?
-Influence rarely spread beyond the ports into countries' interiors
-Peoples of Asia remained largely unnaffected
Who was Bartolomeu Dias?
-Portuguese explorer
-Sailed around southern tip of Africa
Who was Prince Henry?
-Portuguese
-Founded navigation school
-Took lead in overseas exploration
Who was Vasco da Gama?
-Portuguese explorer
-sailed around Africa to the Port of Calicut in India
What was the Dutch East India Company?
-Dutch's trading company with India
How was Spain affected by colonization of the Americas?
-more land
-increased trade
-more money
How were Native Americans affected by colonization?
-disease
-slavery
-wars and death
Who was Christopher Columbus?
-Spanish explorer
-Sailed west and discovered the Americas and Caribbean islands
What is a colony?
Lands controlled by another nation.
Who was Hernando Cort'es?
-Spanish explorer
-landed in Mexico
-conquered Aztecs
Who were the conquistadors?
Spanish explorers who explored and conquered the new world
Who was Montezuma II?
-Aztec emperor
-Believed Cortes was a god
Who was Francisco Pizzaro?
-Spanish Conquistador
-Conquered the Incas
What is a Mestizo?
A mixed Spanish and Native American.
What was the Encomienda?
A labor system forcing natives to work for the Spanish landlords.
Who was Pop'e?
-A pueblo leader
-led a revolt in 1680
-17000 men vs. Spanish
-drove Spanish out for 12 years
-Then was conquered
Why were France's North American holdings so sparsely settled?
-Had no desire to build towns or raise families
-fur trade
-more concentrated on making money
How did the colonies of Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay differ?
-Jamestown was founded to find gold rather than plant crops so people died of starvation and disease
-Men were mostly single
-Massachusetts Bay had families meant to reproduce
-Began to farm and had plenty of food
How were the Dutch and French colonies different from the English colonies of North America?
-Dutch and French established as trading colonies with low population
-English was to settle people and start a new world
What made it possible for the Dutch and French to coexist in relative peace with the Native American?
-Dutch and French had no intentions to take land
-traded with Native Americans
Why did issues of land and religion cause such conflict between the Native Americans and English settlers?
-English seized more land with growing population
-misunderstandings over religion
-Puritans viewed Natives as Heathens and vise versa
What may have been one reason the English Eventually defeated the French in North America?
-English had more people
-were backed by British army
What was New France?
France's colonial empire in Northern America.
What was Jamestown?
England's first colony in North America.
What were pilgrims?
-sought religious freedon
-founded second English colony at Plymouth in Massachusetts
What are puritans?
-sought religious freedom
-Founded colony near Massachusetts Bay
What was New Netherland?
The Dutch holdings in North America.
What was the French and Indian War?
The war between the British and the French on the North American Continent.
Who was Metacom (King Philip)?
-Native American Ruler
-Led attack on 52 colonial villages
What were some characteristics of Muslim and African slavery?
-slaves had legal rights and opportunity for social mobility
-slaves were able to occupy positions of influence and power
-some had slaves of there own
-could escape their bondage
-sons and daughters of slaves were free
What advantages did Europeans see in enslaving Africans?
-Africans had been exposed to European diseases and were immune
-had experience in farming
-had little knowledge of the land so they were less likely to escape
Why did many African rulers participate in the Atlantic Slave trade?
-no different to them than selling to Muslims and African rulers
-got gold guns and other goods
What were the consequences of the Atlantic slave trade in Africa?
-cultures lost generations of young
-families were torn apart
-firearms helped spread war
What were the consequences of the Atlantic slave trade in the Americas?
-free labor that helped economies grow
-brought farming expertise
-brought their culture
What was the Atlantic slave trade?
The buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas.
What was Triangular Trade?
A transatlantic trade route
-Manufactured goods to west Africa
-Captured Africans to West Indies
-sugar coffee and tobacco back to Europe
What was the middle passage?
The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North and South America.
What region in the Americas imported the most Africans?
Brazil
What region in the Americas imported the second most Africans?
Present United States
How many slaves were transported to the Americas?
9.5 Million
Why was the Columbian Exchange considered a significant event?
-foods kept people healthy
-boosted world population
What was harmful about the Columbian Exchange?
Brought disease such as smallpox and measles to Native Americans
Who benefited the most from the Columbian Exchange?
Europeans
What role did colonies play in the policy of mercantilism?
-provided silver and gold
-provided raw materials such as wood and fur
-played role of supplier
-provided a market
What was the Columbian Exchange?
The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas.
What was commercial revolution?
A wave of new business and trade practice in Europe during the 16th and 17th century.
What is capitalism?
Economic system based on private ownership.
What was the joint-stock company?
A number of people pooling their wealth for a common purpose.
What is mercantilism?
Belief that a country's power depended on its wealth.
What was the favorable balance of trade?
A trade in which a country sold more goods than it bought.