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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Italian Renaissance
~Moving Crusading Armies - revived trade & shippin in Italy
~Lomabrds settled new cities in central Italy & combined German Energy with Roman Learning.
Francesco Sforza
Duke/Chief of a mercenaries army; too over Milan with his army
Florence is ruled by the few
Cosim de'Medici
international banker in Florence
King has all the prosperity in Maples
wrote The Prince: "in order to get things done, do what is necessary"
started the humanism and develop sonnets

humanist: person who look to the past and use history to present in the modern future.
~Belief that education changes humans
~Help Prepares for a better life
Johannes Gutenberg 1445
invented the printing press; invented a movable use of type metal to make copies; By 1500, 1000 printships and 9 million books
artist who made perspective concepts very important
use light and shade to make pictures realistic
poetic vision; create things whatever in his mind
Greatest artist of the Renaissance(TMNT)
Micheangelo, Leornado de Vinci, Donatello, Raphael
Made a lot of salt sellers;
famous for his autobiographical book about his life in the Renaissance
wrote IN PRAISE OF FOLLY; monk who brought a lot about the Renaissance into the modern society
Thomas More
English who wrote UTOPIA about the Perfect of everything in life.
wrote DON QUIXOTE- about an old who set an example ignoring things that are goin on. mocks the Spaniards
William Shakespeare
"Renaissance Man"; greatest English writer b/c of his sonnets, comedies/tragic drama plays
German who wrote "ADORATION OF THE MAGI"; famous for the wood carving of the PRAISING HANDS
Switzerland man who painted famous people to be recognized for history
Van Eyck-
Netherland man who invented oil paint.
invented to combine poem with music
Text painting
use to put words into pictures so that ican follow along with the music
John Wycliff
established Lollards;

a)Bible is sole authority on religion not the Pope
b)Bible must be in the language of the people
c)Reject ritual not in the Bible
John Huss
started Hussites;
a)Remove corrupt clergy
b)stop taking the peoples land
Council of Constance
a)Huss given safe conduct to explain his ideas
b)Hussite wars in Bohemia
Reform of the Church
Authority of Church is taken from Pope and Given to Church councils
Renaissance papacy
~Borgia Family -took control of the popes for a while; put politics in front of Church
~Church offices sold.
Ottoman Turks
hired as mercenaries; took over the Muslim world.
New Sultan
inherits all the lords and knights money.
Memet II
1453 Sultan; took Constantinople by hiring Christians gunmakers to built the largest gun machine.
Memet called his Christian soldiers this.
War of the Roses in England
a)Red Rose- Lancaster
b)White Rose- York
c)Henry Tudor defeats Richard III at Bosworth Field that ended the war.
d)Henry VIII Restores Power to England
***1)Court of the Star Chamber ends Civil War
***2)Only English could Trade in England
***3)No Jews could live in England
***4)No Wars, low taxes
Catholic Methods of Reformation
Indulgences, Relics, to Mary & Saints
Mystikal Movement
1)Pray directly to God
2)Follw the teachings of Christ
Martin Luther
A)Church Lawyer & monk; taught Bible at Wittenberg University.
B)Catholic belief: Salvation by faith & Good Works
C)Luther found in Romans, "Man is saved by faith in the promises of God." And Bible is sole authority of all religious ideas.
D)New Pope Leo had sale on indulgences to rebuilt St. Peter in Rome.
1)Tetzel sold them
2)Luther protested by nailing 95 theses on Church door in Rittenburg.
Edict of Worms
where the Church went over to explain Luther's Ideas from his Pamphlets.
Spread of Reformation
Printing Press spread by Luther Pamphlets.
~~~Luther (1522) Forms his church
1)Trains preachers to debate priests in Church.
2)Music spread ideas
3)Pope is taxing Germany
John Calvin
believe in predistination that "God is your father" Gods already know your destination ."
Council of Trent
where Catholic Reformation was held; Church councils restated church Beliefs.
Society of Jesus(Jesuits)
monks who wore black; 2nd Catholic Reformation.
Ignatius Loyola
founder of Jesuits; must be educated first, or by force as secondary.
took hungary; destroys Muslims. Attack Vienna capital of Austria
Marco Polo
took a trip by land to China; in charged of paper money there; wrote books about his adventures;
Age of Discovery
*After 1440, China abadoned long range sea travel.
*Muslims cut off overland trade so a new sea route to Asia mus be found.
Prince Henry "the Navigator"
started schools for navigators; established new inventions for navigations
New Renaissance inventions:
compass, astrolabe, grid maps, rudders, triangle sails, cannon.
Da Gama
1st man to sail around Africa to Asia. Founded India; brought back black pepper and sugarcane.
Columbus (OCT 12 1942)
discovered the "New World" who he thought was the east coast of Asia.
goes to Mexico and found Aztec and defeated them till there were 500 left.
took his own expdition and conquered Incas; became ruler of SOuth America
Portugese colony that was established in India
established by Portugese colony
Portugese Conly in China
did not want other European trades except gunds
French prostesntst
Catherine de Medici
Queen of France; said it was intorable to have all Huguenots int the city so she ordered to massacre them which called Bartholomew's Day massacre.
**sent body guards to killed 10,000 prostestants in Paris
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV passed this to make Prostenstants legally free. ended the religious massacre war.
Duke of Alva
King who was sent to control the Netherlands; rule the country by the Council of Blood which executing the nobles that cause them to rebelled.
William of Nassau
(Prince of Orange)- led the rebellion of the nobles towards the Council of Blood.
Henry VIII
man who took England out of Catholic Church so he can be divorced, but was not authorized; instead he made himself the head of Church.
Edward VI
Henry VIII's son; he replace the Catholic prayer's book and sacraments into Prostentants.
Mary I (Tudor)
"Bloody Mary"; Catholic who try to force people to go to a mass by his troops or else be slaughtered; rebelled against the Queen; cut her head; married Philip II;
Elizabeth I
release from jail to being a Queen; Philip II wants to marry her;
```1588-English defeats Spanish Armada: aftermath- England took control over the Ocean and Colonization.
money lose its values; caused by Indian Gold & silver;
**food prices and taxes went up the fastest;
**wages rose little
**Dutch Began to take over European & world trade
~~~~Flyute - invented as new kind ship carrying supplies, has flat bottoms and cheaper
~~~~National Bank - important for exchange rate when it come to trade
~~~~Joint-stock companies - one company is divided in different other shares and people can still their shares and still make money for the main corporation.
~~~~Banking moved from Italy & South Germany to Ansterdam
African Slave trade
Overland control Muslim
Portugese buys from Benin
England buys from Ashanti
old fashioned philosophy about economic ; trading weapons for gold & silver.
Thirt Years war
Bohgemian Phase:
1)Meetin in Bohemia to create an army
2)Catholic League Gen. Tilly defeats Bohemia

1)King Christian IV defeats Tilly
2)Albrect Wallenstein(businessman) raised new army by using advertising to attract soldiers.

1)Gustavus Adolphus defeats Wallenstein

1)Chardinal Richelieu - Run France; brought the French army to Prostentanst and charged at the Catholic at the Battle of Rocroi
2) Battle of Rocroi - French Defeat the Catholic army ending with a draw
Peace of Westpalia
sys "every prince in Europe will choose thier own religion & thier people would joined in"
Military Revolution
-Prostestants had less money & less men. so used guns to fight soldiers with Pikes
-Calvary used pistols & thin swords
-Gustavus Adolphus used light cannons.
Baroque Art
- art introduced in the Church to get people back in CHurch.
Philip II of Spain
lives in his tomb, whe he died, he wanted to be buried in it.