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111 Cards in this Set

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Otto von Bismarck
1815-1898, chancellor of Germany after the unification of German states, had treaties with Austria and Italy and Russia. Dismissed by the new Emperor Kaiser William II.
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
1856-1921, the new chancellor of Germany under Kaiser William
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1863-1914, Austrian-Hungarian heir to the throne, his assassination by a Serb on June 28, 1914, started the first World War.
Helmut von Moltke
German elderly commander
WWI
Erich von Falkenhayn
German elderly commander WWI
Joseph Joffre
French elderly commander WWI
Ferdinand Foch
French elderly commander
WWI
Douglas Haig
British elderly commander WWI
John French
British elderly commander
WWI
Tannenberg,
battle on the Eastern Front, end of August 1914, Germans shoved the Russians back across the border
Brest-Litovsk, treaty of,
signed in March 1918, ceded to Germany all of Russia’s western territories, containing a full one-third of the population of the prewar Russian Empire, including Poland, the Baltic states, and part of Byelorussia.
T.E. Lawrence
1888-1935, British soldier better known as “Lawrence of Arabia” leading the Arab nationalists for the Allies against the Ottoman Empire who were on the side of Germany
Lusitania
British passenger liner, sunk in May 1915 by a German sub, killing almost 1200 people including 128 Americans. Part of what pushed the U.S. into the first World War on the Allied side.
David Lloyd George
1863-1945, prime minister of Britain at the end of 1916; Welsh artisan’s son, not a fan of compromise peace.
Georges Clemenceau
, 1841-1929, prime minister of France in 1917, nicknamed the “Tiger.” Credited with the phrase, “Je fais la guerre!” (“I make war!”).
Paul Hindenburg
1847-1934, German commander at Tannenberg
Erich von Ludendorff,
, 1865-1937, German commander at Tannenberg
Grigorii Rasputin
1869-1916, spiritual mentor of Alexandra, wife of Nicholas II, a poor faith healer, illiterate, he stopped the bleeding of Alexi, young hemophiliac heir to the throne, considered a traitor by many high-ranking Russians, he opposed the war against Germany, murdered in 1916 by Russian noblemen
Duma,
Russian Parliament, created a Provisional Government on March 12, 1917, in response to Tsar Nicholas’ abdication forced by revolution. This Provisional Government failed and the Bolsheviks took over.
Alexander Kerensky
, 1881-1970, popular socialist and Petrograd Soviet member appointed as prime minister under the failing Provisional Government
T.E. Lawrence
1888-1935, British soldier better known as “Lawrence of Arabia” leading the Arab nationalists for the Allies against the Ottoman Empire who were on the side of Germany
Lusitania
British passenger liner, sunk in May 1915 by a German sub, killing almost 1200 people including 128 Americans. Part of what pushed the U.S. into the first World War on the Allied side.
David Lloyd George
1863-1945, prime minister of Britain at the end of 1916; Welsh artisan’s son, not a fan of compromise peace.
Georges Clemenceau
, 1841-1929, prime minister of France in 1917, nicknamed the “Tiger.” Credited with the phrase, “Je fais la guerre!” (“I make war!”).
Balfour Declaration of Israel
1917, issued by the British government, announced that Britain favored the Zionist goal of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine (the biblical land
T.S. Eliot
(chapter 24) 1888-1965, American expatriate poet, published a lengthy poem called “The Waste Land,” in 1922 written in Cubist collage form, fragmented, disjointed, but expressed the postwar disillusion.
Martin Heidegger,
1889-1976, existentialism philosophy, atheist.
Jean-Paul Sartre,
1905-1980, Heidegger’s student, even a more pessimistic version of existentialism.
Otto Dix,
1891-1969, War veteran, artist depicting crippled ex- soldiers, and Flanders, painted in 1934, depicting a nightmare of trench soldiers, rotting like blasted trees.
Walter Gropius
1883-1969, founder of the Bauhaus, a school for architects, craftsmen, and designers, established in Berlin in 1919. Wanted his students to become the architects of a new civilization.
Le Corbusier
1887-1965, Swiss architect, modernist architects, stripped buildings of all ornaments and frequently exposed the supporting beams, heating ducts, elevator shafts, using concrete, steel and glass, modernist skyscrapers.
Ernest Rutherfo
, scientist, dismissed the idea of unlocking to release energy as “moonshine.” But 4 years later, the key to unlocking the atom was found.1871-1937, British
Cheka,
Russian Secret Police, Lenin’s secret police, executed at least 200,000 people in the first 6 years of Bolshevik rule
Marshall Josef Pilsudski
1867-1935, Polish World War I hero, seized power in a military coup, after parliamentary representatives proved unable to overcome class and ethnic divisions. He took control and toppled democracy in 1926.
Wolfgang Kapp
1858-1922, right-wing politician, instigator with WWI war hero Erich Von Ludendorff, of the “Kapp Putsch” to overthrow the Weimar regime using the disbanded corpsmen from the Free Corps.
Dawes Plan,
1924 plan for renegotiating reparations after WWI, designed to stabilize Germany’s economy.
Victor Emmanuel III
Emmanuel III, ruled 1900-1946, King of Italy, asked Mussolini to become prime minister. Enter Fascism
Iron Guard,
the first mass fascist movement in the Balkans.
Paul von Hindenburg
President of Germany, World War I hero, in his 80’s weak and easily manipulated, persuaded to make Hitler chancellor in January 1933.
Leni Riefenstahl,
1902-2003, Nazi filmmaker, hired by Hitler to film Nazi rallies.
Nikolai Bukharin
, 1888-1938, Soviet, opposed Trotsky’s radical tax and confiscation of the peasants to get capital for industrial development; instead he wanted to enrich the peasant, agricultural development must precede industrialization. Backed at first by Stalin, then Stalin turned on him after he got rid of Trotsky.
Leon Blum
, 1872-1950, French Socialist leader, took office as prime minister in 1936, settled a general strike, nationalized the key war industries, gave workers pay increases, paid holidays, and 40-hr workweek. French conservatives equated Blum’s policies to Stalin’s. He resigned in May 1937.
Francisco Franco
1892-1975, General over Moroccan troops, crossed into Spain from North Africa and fought against the republic in the Spanish civil war , when they surrendered to him, he established an authoritarian government and ended democracy.
Easter Rising
, an armed rebellion on Easter Monday in 1916, Irish revolutionary nationalists wanting an independent Ireland.
Michael Collins
Irish Republican Army (IRA) chief, took the offer of Ireland independence, Ireland partitioned north and south, with the north remaining part of Britain. He died during the two year civil war
Sevres,
, Treaty of, signed by the Ottoman (modern Turkey) government, gave away their territories to Greece, Italy, Kurdistan, and Armenia; and gave its sovereignty to the Allies
Mustafa Kemal Pasha
Turkish nationalist, rose up against the Ottoman government that signed the Treaty of Sevres, overthrew the sultan, defeated a Greek invasion, and forced the Allies to draw up a new settlement. The Treaty of Lausanne restored much of its land and its sovereignty.
Wahhabism,
the call to return to fundamental truths and practices of Islam, named after Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab, demanding the purification of Islam by ridding it of centuries of heretical accretions such as saint worship and other forms of mysticism, and returning to strict interpretation of the Sharja or Islamic law.
Carl Jung
1875-1961, Freud’s onetime disciple, contended that a careful study of an individual’s dreams will show that they share commonality, the collective unconscious, meaning no boundary between civilized and primitive, or west and not west.
Herman Hesse,
1877-1962, German novelist, condemned modern industrial society as spiritually barren and celebrated Eastern mysticism.
Haile Selassie
1892-1975, Ethiopia’s exiled Emporer, 1936 addressed the Assembly of the League of Nations and warned, “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.” Mussolini ordered Italian forces to inflict saturation bombing of civilians, use of poison gas, and concentration camps.
Edourd Daladier
French prime minister, with Britain’s prime minister Neville Chamberlain, gave Hitler permission to occupy the Sudentenland of Czechoslovakia in 1938, in the “Munich Agreement.”
Stanley Baldwin
1867-1947, Chamberlain’s predecessor as Britain’s prime minister.
Ernest Rutherford
1871-1937, British scientist, dismissed the idea of unlocking to release energy as “moonshine.” But 4 years later, the key to unlocking the atom was found.
Rosa Luxemburg
1870-1919, leader of a breakaway socialist faction called the Spartacists, wanted Germany to follow Russia in communist revolution. Murdered in January 1919 by Free Corps officers
Karl Liebknecht
1871-1919, leader of a breakaway socialist faction called the Spartacists, wanted Germany to follow Russia in communist revolution. Murdered in January 1919 by Free Corps officers.
Friedrich Ebert
1871-1925, head of the German SPD, became chancellor of Germany on November 9, 1918
John Maynard Keynes
1883-1946, British economist insisted that in times of depression, the state should not look toward balancing the budget but instead should institute deficit spending to stimulate economic growth. Then the government should increase taxes and cut expenditures to recover the deficits.
Marshal Philippe Petain
1856-1951, WWI war hero who was given power over France after German soldiers marched into Paris. He signed an armistice with Germany.
Vichy, Vichy Regime
the authoritarian government with Marshal Philippe Petain giving the Nazi regime France.
Erwin Rommel,
the authoritarian government with Marshal Philippe Petain giving the Nazi regime France.
Katyn Forest
where thousands of Polish soldiers were murdered in front of gravesites after Germany took over.
El Alamein
North African battle that marked the culmination of 2 years of fighting; British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and American forces and pushed Germany out.
Midway,
, battle at Midway Island, the Japanese attacked and shot down 2/3 of the American planes on June 4, 1942. But an American dive-bomber group that had gotten lost, found itself about the Japanese carriers. In one day they sunk all 4 of Japan’s carriers. It changed the course of the Pacific war.
Stalingrad, battle of Stalingrad
turning point of the war, November 23, 1942, German army cut off at Stalingrad, fighting for 3 months in the streets in the winter, finally surrendered in January, German army commanded by Friedrich von Paulus.
Dwight Eisenhower,
General, supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe, 1890-1969.
Douglas MacArthur
General, supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific, 1880-1964.
Enola Gay
, American plane that dropped the atom bomb above the city of Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945.
Adolf Eichmann
1906-1962, SS Lieutenant Colonel, the keeper of the list of Jews in every country. Brought to trial after being in hiding until 1960 in Argentina, kidnapped by the Israelis.
Rienhard Heydrich,
1904-1942, chief SS official in the region of German-held Czechoslovakia, assassinated. In retaliation, the Germans massacred the entire population of the village of Lidice.
Charles de Gaulle
, 1890-1970, General of the Free French provisional government, a resistance group of French in Algeria.
Chetniks,
, Guerilla bands of Servian soldiers, loyal to the exiled Yugoslav monarchy
Josip Broz,
1892-1980, alias “Tito,” communist, head of a resistance group in Yugoslavia looking for social revolution and equality in a reunited Yugoslavia. They fought the Chetniks and the Germans. They won.
Joseph Goebbels
, 1897-1945, Hitler’s deputy
Clement Atlee
, replaced Churchill as prime minister of Britain at the very end of the war, Labour Party leader.
Dien Bien Phu,
, Vietnam area where the French lost rule of Indochina in 1954.
Ho Chi Minh
1890-1969, Indochina’s nationalist leader, adopted the US Declaration of Independence for his model. Indochina achieved their independence in 1954 from French rule.
Konrad Adenauer,
1876-1967, West Germany’s first chancellor, argued that only a rearmed West Germany could prevent the forcible reunification of Germany on Soviet terms.
Nikita Khrushchev,
, 1955-1964, new Soviet leader after Stalin’s death
Walter Ulbricht,
1893-1973, East German communist leader
Alexander Solzhenitsyn,
, author of horrifying accounts of Soviet slave labor camps; he nicknamed them “The Gulag Archipelago.”
Wladislaw Gomulka,
1905-1982, Polish communist purged in the Stalinist terror of 1951, but brought back to power in Poland in 1956.
Imre Nagy
, 1896-1958, Hungary’s new leader, but executed because he tried to break with Soviets in withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact, and Khrushchev sent in tanks and killed 20k Hungarians.
Nicolae Ceausescu,
, 1918-1989, Romania’s leader, one of the “mini-Stalins” who imposed not only one party but one-man control over the country through terror.
Vaclav Havel,
, Czech playwright and dissident, born 1936.
Samuel Beckett,
1906-1989, Irish-French playwright, existentialist “Waiting for Godot” (1952)
Jackson Pollock,
, 1912-1956, Abstract Expressionist painter
William Golding,
, 1911-1993, British author, “Lord of the Flies.”
Francis Crick,
1916-2004, British biologist, discovered the structure of DNA.
James Watson,
, b. 1928, American biologist, discovered the structure of DNA
Jonas Salk
, American scientist, announced the first polio vaccine.
Simone de Beauvoir
, 1908-1986, French writer, published “The Second Sex.”
Détente,
, the effort to stabilize superpower relations through negotiations and arms control.
Ospolitik,
“Eastern policy,” the opening of diplomatic and economic relations between West Germany and the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
Jean-Marie Le Pen,
, French, veteran of the Algerian war, created the “Front National” in 1974 as an anti-immigration party. Blamed all problems on non-white immigrants.
Helmut Kohl,
, born 1930, West German leader, New Conservatism, Christian Democrat party.
Francois Mitterand,
, 1916-1996, French president, elected 1981 Social Party leader.
Vaclav Havel
, President of the newly free Czechoslovakia
Lech Walesa,
, born 1943, Polish Solidarity leader, an electrician by trade.
Wojciech Jaruzelski,
, Prime Minister, Polish communist, cracked down in December 1981 and declared martial law and arrested more the 10k Solidarity members.
Helmut Kohl,
, born 1930, West German leader, New Conservatism, Christian Democrat party.
Francois Mitterand,
, 1916-1996, French president, elected 1981 Social Party leader.
Vaclav Havel
, President of the newly free Czechoslovakia
Lech Walesa,
, born 1943, Polish Solidarity leader, an electrician by trade.
Wojciech Jaruzelski,
, Prime Minister, Polish communist, cracked down in December 1981 and declared martial law and arrested more the 10k Solidarity members.
Yuri Andropov,
reigned over the Soviet Union 1982-1984 after Brezhnev died; he died
Konstantin Chernenko,
, reigned over the Soviet Union 1984-1985 after Andropov died.
Glasnost,
, established under Gorbachev, it means openness or publicity or transparency
Perestroika,
, established under Gorbachev, it means restructuring or reconstruction, reforms, modernization, could be in industry, economics, or politics.
Boris Yeltsin
, born 1931, President of Russia as opposed to the Soviet Union in 1991, a reformer who wanted the Soviets to shift to a capitalist economy.