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56 Cards in this Set

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Islam
“submission
Muhammad (570-632)
• Born in Mecca (a busy trading town)
• Orphaned before ten, lived with relatives, w/ aunts, then uncles, passed around
• Reputation as a reliable, honest caravan leader
• Hired to guard a wealthy widow’s caravan; they got married; only after her death, did he take multiple wives
• Followed a Arab polytheistic religion
• Spent lots of time outside of Mecca meditating
• One particular time an angel appeared and repeated “recite” he concluded that he was to recite what these visions meant to him
• A prophet not divine
• Five pillars of faith- 5 major points; beginning of a foundation for Islamic faith
• Creed-(one god) Allah, the last and greatest prophet of Allah is Muhammad
• Prayer- regular prayer life; ritual prayer five times a day oriented towards Mecca symbolizes submission- kneeling; prostration
• Almsgiving- willing to share anything you have; it is your responsibility to share what you have w/ people who need it
• Fasting; especially in Ramadon (time that coincides w/ the first appearance of Muhammad’s visions);a month of not eating during the day, eat in moderation at night- shows submission
• Pilgrimage (optional) takes you to Mecca once in your lifetime; went to Medina he fully develops Islam, shortly before he died he was moving back to Mecca, then he dies; there is a list of things you have to do, to complete the pilgrimage (3 days) focal point- Ka’aba “black stone” in Mecca
where the pilgrimage begins, you walk around the building a certain direction, then where it ends you walk around the building in the other direction
Ka’aba “black stone” in Mecca-
dark gray black stone- theory is that the Ka’aba stone was originally beige, if you touch it absorbs your sin,
Jihad
not a pillar of faith “holy war” forceful conversion of people
Abu Bakr
Appointed a caliph- military and political leader of the Islamic group
1st caliph; Muhammad closest friend; the people did not accept this, other tribes were enemies they split
shite/sunni split
• Shite-more conservative; upset about Abu Bakr; had their own line of rulers until 1200s; upset about the rules and regulations; individual, very serious;
• Sunni- more liberal; fine wearing western clothes
Clovis Franks-500s
• Clovis-1st Merovingian- went to see the pope hoping the pope would give him a blessing, the pope gave him the blessing, supposedly a dove come down w/ a bottle of oil in his mouth, w/ which he anointed him, for the next hundreds of years the next kings would be anointed as well
Merovingians-
1st royal family of France
mayor of the palace
- assistant king, runs all the kings business
• The line of mayor of the palaces were hard-workers
Charles “the hammer” Martel
“mayor of the palace” clashed w/ the Muslims in 732 when they tried to invade France; if they had gotten in there would have been no one to stop them from taking over eastern Europe-called the Battle of Poitiers (Tours) 732
• After he becomes (Charles “the hammer” Martel)
Battle of Poitiers (Tours) 732
• Charles Martel “mayor of the palace” clashed w/ the Muslims in 732 when they tried to invade France; if they had gotten in there would have been no one to stop them from taking over eastern Europe
Jabal-al Tarik
• Muslims use the Strait of Gibraltar led by Jabal al Tarik to get into Spain in 632
Peppin(Pepin) "the short"
• -Pepin 751-768
Carolingians-751
• Carolingians- a new line of Kings
Charlemagne (768-814)
• His son Charles the Great- Charlemagne (768-814)
1. Military- extended France to the north, the east, and to the south
• Spanish March took military control of the border between France and Spain and made it a demilitarized zone “no mans land”
2. Political system-created a workable system
• Divided it into provinces- counts headed the provinces; counts were to be loyal to him
• Sent in secret spies to make sure that everything was working properly, and that they were loyal to him
3. Education – set up a system of schools for his count’s sons; he paid for it himself
• He encouraged art
• Paid people to develop new styles of writing
• Encouraged architecture
• Achen- new capital of France he let new people design it in a new way
• Einhard wrote a bio of Charlemagne’s life; He did not know how to read and write
• He decided he wanted to learn how to read and write; taught himself to read, he couldn’t write because he was too old
5. Religion ------- Dec. 25 800
• He had a close relationship w/ the church
• On Dec. 25 800 Charlemagne was given a new title-“Holy Roman Emperor” by the Pope
• The pope wants Charlemagne to rebuild the Roman empire; which shows the desire for the Pax Romana- “the good old days” when Augustus ruled
Louis "the pious"
• When Charlemagne died he left everything to his son Louis “the Pious” (814-840) he was not interested in politics, he is interested in the church
• When Louis died, he divided everything up among his three oldest sons in his will, which led to his two youngest son gets jealous. Not a good thing
Treaty of Verdun
• Treaty of Verdun- 842/843- official deed splitting of the French State
Lothair-(the oldest)Holy Roman Empire
“Holy Roman Emperor” central slice of the land; his line dies out
Charles "the Bald"-The France
west of Lothair’s territory
Louis- the German-Germany
“the German” east of Lothair’s territory; it become Germany; after Lothair’s line dies out he becomes Holy Roman Empire
feudal system
replacement for a strong central government if a strong central gov. doesn’t exist ( when there is no one to take a stand feudal system got the job done...but were very restrictive you could not change your life in any way – could not climb your social status , everything still belonged to king
Lord
Vassal
- lord ~ anyone who gives control of land to someone else
- Vassal~ anyone who gets control of a piece of land from a lord ( most people were both)
subinfeudation
passing down responsibility, control and authority to dif. levels
- each person subdivides county , people to be responsible for different areas in county , know exactly where you fit in etc. it does the job system runs well , very inefficient system
manor
- Manor ~ manor = farm , where most people lived and where the food was produced , not a lot of trade , has knight that is in charge of it & were places of refuge , big enough to hold serfs ( weather danger etc.) various kinds of meals , ( maybe a mill or two & craft shops like a metal working shop , most serf huts were small circular buildings with thatched walls & ceilings – usually a pasture and freeland for hunting or pond w/e Serfs could catch / hunt .
serf
~ farmer , plant what they were told to and paid knight of the manor to live there & possibility of shelter in their home
"feudal stool"
- Feudalism – replacement to strong gov. political & economic system , social system
- If any of the 3 legs began to weaken if gets very shaky
trade revival in the Italian cities
• Trade-northern Italian cities; trade was revived; offered other options than being stuck on the manor
• Crusades –series of campaigns from late 900s to 1000, took Christian armies from heart of Europe to the Middle East to take control of important properties back from the Muslims; was not successful, were multiple crusades –but traders went back to the Middle east w/ intentions of trading spices and other things
new agriculture
• New agriculture-new tools helped more production
• 3 field system- take 1/3 of land and let it rest,
• -if you rotate crops, you don’t wear the soil out as quickly; dif. plants take dif. nutrients
burg burgher charter
• Burg- centers of trade; cities; closely controlled by burghers-applied to the king for the charter to create these cities
trade guilds
• Guild- unions- economic groups- if you wanted to be a trader you had to join a trading guild; each trading guild had specific goods they trading and specific places to trade, where to buy goods, what to buy, and how much you can charge for goods
craft guilds
• Crafts guilds- controlled what you could produce, what you could charge, the quality of your work; they trained new craftsman
• Levels of training (craftsman)
• -apprentices (6-9 yrs. old) – running errands, learning the craft
• -journeyman- day worker (11-18 yrs. old)- hands on experience one stage at a time
• Create a masterpiece to become a master craftsman
After your masterpiece is deemed good by your guild, then you can open your own shop and take apprentices
universities
• connected w/ the church and sponsored by the church
• less organized than universities today-lectures no printing press-no books; went somewhere and studied
• Latin was the language of scholars
• Trivium- grammar, logic, and rhetoric-after you passed the lectures you graduated individually
• Quadrivium- arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy - after you passed the lectures you graduated individually
Scholasticism
-overriding theme- focuses on learning of the past, after a short time it will give way to “let’s look toward the future”
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)
Sic et Non (Yes and No)- researched what people thought in the past got one of his students pregnant married her Her father arranged to have his privates cut off
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Summa Theologica- best descriptions of God
troubadour poetry
- special pure love between a brave knight and between the woman he loves so much but can never have; she inspires him
chanson de geste
heroic epic knight in and of himself , in all his bravery and courage and victory
Romanesque Architecture
• Architecture- Romanesque- windows are small; dark turned into Gothic Archeticture
Gothic Architecture
- pointed arch; glass makers had perfected making flat and stained glass; flying buttresses comes out from the side of the building like a prop
King Canute of Denmark
• 1016- English lost control to the Danes
• Canute King of Danes takes all the land; after his death the Anglo Saxons make a comeback
Edward the Confessor
• 1066-king was Edward the Confessor he died
Witan
• Witan- council of nobles meet at select the new England monarch
Harold Godwinson
• Harold Godwinson chosen king
• He has a challenger for the kingship a French noble who was related to English as well- William was duke of Normandy
William I the conqueror
• Harold Godwinson chosen king
• He has a challenger for the kingship a French noble who was related to English as well- William was duke of Normandy
• William says give me the kingship or my military will take it. William headed north and Harold headed south, their armies clash and the battle of Hastings
• Harold is killed, so the French win because the English knights give up
• So he becomes William I king of England takes the title “William the Conqueror” feudalism disappears
• He announced to all the knights you loses your armies, your castles,
• Doomsday book 1086- the census he wants to know who lives in England and what they own so he can tax them- the English knew so they tried to lie- the Danes knew so they surprised the English so they called it the Doomsday book.
• Dramatic change from feudal system to a power-tripping king
Battle of Hastings
• William says give me the kingship or my military will take it. William headed north and Harold headed south, their armies clash and the battle of Hastings
• Harold is killed, so the French win because the English knights give up
• So he becomes William I king of England takes the title “William the Conqueror” feudalism disappears
Doomsday book
• Doomsday book 1086- the census he wants to know who lives in England and what they own so he can tax them- the English knew so they tried to lie- the Danes knew so they surprised the English so they called it the Doomsday book.
Henry II
• Henry II (1154-1189) - adored by the people but screwed it up at the end
• Tax collecting-Tax farming sell the right to collect taxes to the highest bidder, they had little supervision they charged people extra, and pocketed the money. Henry figured out and changed the system
Exchequer pipe rolls
• Exchequer- treasurer; created a series of traveling tax collectors, they traveled on a circuit. They are told how much money to get from every individual family, the family would pay publicly and give you a receipt
• Pipe Rolls- recording of tax records
Writ, Jury, common law,
a legal order commanding something to be done; cost a fraction of a penny
- people who judge you
-
Constitutions of Clarendon
we are not going to allow our courts to be w/ the church anymore
canon courts
is the separate church courts; dealt w/ clergy or an offense against God like adultery.
Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury
• Archbishop of Canterbury- pope’s highest representative in England, represented the king and the pope- Thomas Beckett a friend of Henry, but he had a turnaround and sided w/ the pope. They threatened to kick Henry out of the church-Henry did not care. Then the pope threatened interdict- closed down all the churches in your country
• One night Henry is drinking w/ his friends, and he gets his drunk friends to slay Thomas Beckett while he was at the altar praying
John I (1199-1216)
• Henry son, King John I (1199-1216) not the immediate successor his brother Richard was king first, got kidnapped and ransomed so England pays almost all the money so when John became king they had little money; so John raised taxes
• John wanted to help choose the Archbishop of Canterbury; the pope says I don’t think so, They threatened to kick John out of the church-he did not care. Then the pope threatened interdict- closed down all the churches in your country and did for a while
• John loses Normandy an embarrassment to England- on a tour of Normandy he got married to a gorgeous French girl, but she was engaged to a noble, the penalty of dishonoring a fellow man he loses his position as duke of Normandy
• Nobles kidnapped him as said sign this document or die, he signed it, it was the Magna Carta- the king, John I, was under the law, the king cannot raise taxes w/o asking the people no taxation w/o representation
Magna Carta (1215)
• Nobles kidnapped him as said sign this document or die, he signed it, it was the Magna Carta- the king, John I, was under the law, the king cannot raise taxes w/o asking the people no taxation w/o representation
Danelaw
the area given to the Danish