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72 Cards in this Set

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Phillip II of Macedonia
359-336 B.C.
emperor of Macedonia assassinated by three of his top generals ; admiration of Greek culture; took over the Greeks
He dies in 336 B.C
338 B.C. Battle of Chaeronea
–he defeated the Greeks
League of Corinth-
met in Corinth representatives of Greece and Macedonians, They tell Greece what to do
Alexander the Great (death 323B.C.)
ran the empire created the largest empire the world had ever seen; wanted to spread Greek culture
-established the Alexa ndrias
Alexandria
Alexandria (centers of learning)
• Most Important was the one in Egypt
• Put Greek scrolls, and copies in all the Alexandrias
Archimedes
• Archimedes- mathematician ; inventor of water pump like a “Archimedes screw”
Ptolemy
• Ptolemy rules Egypt, southern area of Macedonia 323 B.C-31 B.C. descendents of Ptolemy rule Egypt never achieves its once powerful status; Alexander to Cleopatra
Hellenic/Hellenistic
Hellenic- “Greek”
Hellenistic Greek-like
Thalus of Miletus
Thales of Miletis
- stuff of universe is Water
1st generations of philosophers (Early Greek philosophers)
Heraclitus
life is constant “change” “River-never put your foot in the same river twice” 1st generations of philosophers (Early Greek philosophers)
Democritus
discovered atoms “he had no microscope”
1st generations of philosophers (Early Greek philosophers)
Pythagoras
mathematician- strings held at dif. lengths make dif. sounds; understanding math is the key to understanding the world
1st generations of philosophers (Early Greek philosophers)
Socrates• 469 B.C - 399 B.C.
• You are born knowing the truth, but after years of not caring, the truth gets buried under layers of falsehoods.
• Asking questions is the key to life
• “the unexamined life is not worth living”
• He killed himself because was told to stop teaching the youth to question everything or die so he kills himself,
Plato • 429B.C.-347 B.C.
• Upper World- perfection; perfect love
• World of Shadow/Lower World- no perfection; no perfect love
• Philosophers have a gift, they can see into the world of perfection
• The Academy a place to strengthen their philosophical gift
• He wanted philosophers to run the government- “The Republic” explains this idea
Aristotle • 384 B.C-322 B.C
• Truth was in this world
• Observing is the key to truth
• Look at the world around you
• “The Lyceum”- his school
Skeptics
Skeptics- doubted the existence of truth
The truth is that truth doesn’t exist- spin out to a cat chasing its tail around in a circle
Cynics
sure that truth doesn’t exist; if it did it wouldn’t make a difference
Diogenes
-leader of the cynics; “life is living in a trash can”
Stiocs-“porch people” – Zeno (founder of the stoics)-
get on a porch and talk-“stoa”- pain “Life= pain” do your duty
Epicureans
- 1) “deal w/ it- think about it, and try to understand it, put it behind you, don’t let it control you”
2) Balance it out by doing something you enjoy.
In Rome- “Eat drink and be merry for tomorrow you may die”
Romulus and Remos
twin brothers, who supposedly founded Rome
Greek influence
Romans borrowed Greek mythology and religion, borrowed most of their stuff from the Etruscans- army, architecture, politics, name-ROMA, structure of government
650-509 B.C.
650 B.C. Etruscans had control of some settlements for hundreds of years
Roman Republic (509 B.C)
Two counsels
Elected for a term of one year
They understood that both councils could veto each other
A dictator- six month term
The Senate-Election Patricians- upper-class ;Has all the power
Assembly- Plebians- “common people”
The Struggle of the Orders- 494 B.C.-287 B.C. Pg111
• Between the patricians and the plebians
• The common people want more of a voice, and get rid of all of their limits
Twelve Tables 450 B.C.
-carved on tablets the basics of Roman law. Public posting of the law. Still no standard of law.
Latin League-
puts Rome at the center, 509 B.C-250 B.C. defend against the Etruscans if they come back, but they don’t come back
• Uses it to spread their influence
Punic Wars 264- 146 B.C
5) Punic Wars(3) 264 B.C. 146 B.C- Carthage and Rome, trade;
• Sicily-belonged to Carthage; Med Sea
Carthage
Sicily
• 1) Rome attack Carthage for Sicily; They won the war and get Sicily
Hannibal
• 2) Hannibal- a great Carthaginian military general. Decided to attack Rome. He planned sent them to Southern coast of Europe, and marched them to Rome from the land. Used Elephants to carry all the stuff. He didn’t calculate The Alps with the elephants, and loses time. He gets through the Alps, but loses the war Romans take Corsica & Sardinia.
• 3) Romans sail to Carthage, tells them they are there to destroy them, and did it, then looted it. Pour salt all over, so it is inhabitable
• Romans take all of Carthage’s territory, masters of Eastern Mediterranean.
Macedonian Campaign
• Sent military to Macedonia to stop the fighting, every time they left, it started up again several times.
• So they went back and would not leave so they took Greece and Macedonia. Adds more territory to Rome
Colonial Troubles
Troubles of the Roman Republic
5. Colonies- cost $, and manpower to keep the colonies going
6. Economic problems- small farmers in the peninsula of Italy, descendents of Punic Wars and Latin League; - cost $, size of army increased, as size of army increased- so did the time of service required-no young people to upkeep the farms-small farms fall into disrepair-Rome asked fewer farms to produce more- take more sons- the cycle continues; competition-they could not compete w/ other farms, other colonies trading as well, and they could not keep up, 1300 B.C.- small farms disappear, farmers go to Rome trying to find a job, crime rate skyrocketed
a) The small farmers land goes to the state, or to the already rich landowner
7. The Republic was unable or unwilling to find a solution to some of their problems
Tiberius Gracchus
- tribunes
Tiberius- solution- take unclaimed land and redistribute it to the farmers
• The assembly loved him
• The Senate said he was after dictatorship, by getting people to love him; take it the Assembly first, was executed/assassinated for treason
• Cycle will be repeated, they lost the first farm, they will lose the second farm as well
Gaius Gracchus
- tribunes
import taxes, protect our domestic farmers, Senate didn’t want to hear any of it
• 122 B.C.- Gaius committed suicide
"stongmen"
”- challenge the Roman Republic government
• Military-
• reputation 4 success
• ambition
• popular
• Between 140 B.C. -130 B.C.- one strongman after another in power
• Julius Caesar-
civil war
• Civil War- strongmen are fighting the republic; and each other
Julius Caesar (100-44B.C.)
• Consul
• A military who uses it to become a pol. leader a consul
• 59 B.C. leaves and conquers Gaul
• 49 B.C.-A decade later he comes back, senators are scared, they don’t know what he is doing
• Senators sent Julius a message if he crosses the Rubicon River w/ his army, he wanted to be dictator. If he left them on the banks, he would turn the territory over to Rome. He brought his army. Many Senators left as Caesar came in.
• Caesar, wanted to be named dictator, w/ his army beside him, they agreed. Six month clause- Caesar kept renewing it and finally said “make me dictator 4 life.”
• He addressed the problems
-public works; unemployed farmers employed them building public buildings, new bath (social setting)
-He assassinated in 44 B.C.
Rubicon River/Gual Campaign
• 59 B.C. leaves and conquers Gaul
• 49 B.C.-A decade later he comes back, senators are scared, they don’t know what he is doing
• Senators sent Julius a message if he crosses the Rubicon River w/ his army, he wanted to be dictator. If he left them on the banks, he would turn the territory over to Rome. He brought his army. Many Senators left as Caesar came in.
• Caesar, wanted to be named dictator, w/ his army beside him, they agreed. Six month clause- Caesar kept renewing it and finally said “make me dictator 4 life.”
Octavian/Octavious Ceasar
(nephew/adopted son) Lived w/ and by his uncle side
• 44-31 B.C. they conflicted over who gets Rome
• They split up the Empire to repair them
• So Octavian decides it is time to strike, Rome feels like they did not acquire all this territory to give it away to the Egyptians They back up Octavian

• Octavian wins the battle Actiem; Cleopatra committed suicide and killed her son, ending the Ptolemy; Octavious new ruler, he left Egypt
Mark Antony
oldest friend, trusted general
• 44-31 B.C. they conflicted over who gets Rome
• They split up the Empire to repair them
• Cleopatra married Antony- Antony promised that their son would control Rome
• So Octavian decides it is time to strike, Rome feels like they did not acquire all this territory to give it away to the Egyptians They back up Octavian

• Octavian wins the battle Actiem; Cleopatra committed suicide and killed her son, ending the Ptolemy; Octavious new ruler, he left Egypt
Battle of Actium(31 B.C.)
• Cleopatra married Antony- Antony promised that their son would control Rome
• So Octavian decides it is time to strike, Rome feels like they did not acquire all this territory to give it away to the Egyptians They back up Octavian

• Octavian wins the battle Actiem; Cleopatra committed suicide and killed her son, ending the Ptolemy; Octavious new ruler, he left Egypt
Cleopatra
marries Mark Antony
Cleopatra committed suicide and killed her son, ending the Ptolemy;
"Augustus Caesar"/"Emperor" (31 B.C.-14 A.D.)
• Octavious meets w/ the Senate, tells them the Republic is dead; and slowly strips them of their powers
• Octavian is now Caesar-Augustus- “the revered one”
• Becomes leader of the Roman State from 31 B.C.-14 A.D
• -principate- “first citizen”; leader
• -imperator- control of the army
• Charms the Senate w/ honors; titles; clothes, while he is taking away all their powers
• The Senate has one power left, they choose the emperor
• He did the same to the Assembly; It disappears
"softening vices"
we have gotten soft by following things that we should not be following
~ abandonment of religion
~ gambling- “getting something for nothing”
~ decay of family- divorce rate; expelled from Rome, his daughter Julia cause she kept getting divorced
Praetorian Guard
Augustus Secret Service. Guard the emperor
-in 194 A.D. they loose respect for the emperors and start a killing spree on the emperors
Pax Romana/roads
“the good old days”when Caesar ruled
Julio-Claudians(14-68)
Related to Augustus or Claudius
Tiberius (14-37)
successor to Caesar; Augustus’s son in law
Nero (54-68)
had his mother killed, Claudius’s stepson; talented musician; wrote plays; when they were produced, he would show up for a play and star in it, when he held up his hands they had to clap, people left bleeding cuz they had to clap so long; Killed Christians because they would not worship him; Nero committed suicide a couple of days before an assassination plot to kill him; his last words “ Rome has lost a great artist w/ my death”
"Five Good Emperors"
(96-180)
Trajan (98-117)
Rome reaches it largest physical size
Marcus Aurelius (161-180)
A hard worker; (Stoic) wrote a book on meditation and doing the best you can do. Had a blind spot w/ his children; his children weren’t the best choice Suggested that they choose one of his sons to be emperor
Commodus (180-192)
•Commodus died in 192 A.D.; killed by the Praetorian Guard
Architechture
• Architecture- borrowed post and lintel from the Greeks, the lintel will collapse because you are making it bigger for more people; So they discovered that they could use arches and domes which become the foundation for Roman architecture
"Golden Age"
at the time of Augustus; concerned w/ Rome’s place in history
Livy (59 B.C.-17 A.D.)
-Looks at history as a way to learn about life
Virgil(70 B.C-19 B.C.)
(poet like Homer)(historian)
-theme the greatness of Rome in governing, and in peace
Horace(65 B.C-8 B.C.)
-privileged writer, writer who pointed out mistakes and weaknesses of people’s actions
- human shortcomings
Ovid (43B.C.-18 A.D.)
• “trouble maker”, a ladies man, “The Art of Love” was kicked to the outskirts of Rome “softening vices”
Seneca (4 B.C.-63A.D.)
(Silver Age)
-Stoic philosopher
- young men as his students
-Tutored, and advised Nero, Nero didn’t like his advice
- Nero said kill yourself or I’ll kill you, so Seneca committed suicide
Diocletian (284-305)
-inflation problems
-Maximum price caps- you can’t charge more than this price for necessities; enforced w/ the death penalty, but he couldn’t enforce it because the gov. was in such bad state
-TEMPORARILY wanted to divide Rome into two parts, it would be easier to control, it was too much to control for him or anybody else
-He was still the emperor
-He became the Augustus of the East
A good man would start out as Caesar
Then be promoted to Augustus, when the Emperor died the other Augustus becomes emperor
A training ground,
it doesn’t work cuz there is a dogfight for the emperor- his plan falls apart
- persecuted Christians

West East
Augustus-position Augustus- position
Caesar-position Caesar-position
Constantine 306-337
• Continued and completed Diocletian’s policies
• The city Constantinople he lived in a palace
• He deviated from his religion policies
-Religion is crumbling
Became a Christian when he saw a Cross before a battle
313- “Edict of Mulan” - made Christianity a legal religion
barbarians
“barbarians”(foreigners) –invasions for 300’s “mostly Germanic”
• Rome falls in stages
• “Goth”
• “Vandals”-Spain-Andalusia- Africa
• “Lombards”- Italy
• Franks- Roman Gaul becomes France
• Angles Saxon- England
Christian Church- “out to convert the barbarians
• Pope Gregory I (the Great)- 590-604; most ambitious; wanted the church to have good organization and structure
• St. Augustine- Bishop of Hippo 396-430; thinker that lay down foundational thoughts for the church; intellectuals; written books- Confessions, City of God
• St. Benedict-(480-543) monasticism ; secular clergy- go out and work in the world priests, and regular clergy- withdraw from the world periodically or completely, live under special rules and vows
• Special rules- “poverty”- renounce worldly possessions “obedience”-obey superiors “chastity”
• St. Patrick-(390-460) missionary connected w/ Ireland
Islam
submission
Muhammad (570-632)
• Born in Mecca (a busy trading town)
• Orphaned before ten, lived with relatives, w/ aunts, then uncles, passed around
• Reputation as a reliable, honest caravan leader
• Hired to guard a wealthy widow’s caravan; they got married; only after her death, did he take multiple wives
• Followed a Arab polytheistic religion
• Spent lots of time outside of Mecca meditating
• One particular time an angel appeared and repeated “recite” he concluded that he was to recite what these visions meant to him
• A prophet not divine
Mecca & Ka'aba Stone
there is a list of things you have to do, to complete the pilgrimage (3 days) focal point- Ka’aba “black stone” in Mecca- dark gray black stone- theory is that the Ka’aba stone was originally beige, if you touch it absorbs your sin, where the pilgrimage begins, you walk around the building a certain direction, then where it ends you walk around the building in the other direction
Medina (622)
; went to Medina he fully develops Islam
Pilgrammage
Five Pillars of Faith
• Five pillars of faith- 5 major points; beginning of a foundation for Islamic faith
• Creed-(one god) Allah, the last and greatest prophet of Allah is Muhammad
• Prayer- regular prayer life; ritual prayer five times a day oriented towards Mecca symbolizes submission- kneeling; prostration
• Almsgiving- willing to share anything you have; it is your responsibility to share what you have w/ people who need it
• Fasting; especially in Ramadon (time that coincides w/ the first appearance of Muhammad’s visions);a month of not eating during the day, eat in moderation at night- shows submission
• Pilgrimage (optional) takes you to Mecca once in your lifetime; went to Medina he fully develops Islam, shortly before he died he was moving back to Mecca, then he dies; there is a list of things you have to do, to complete the pilgrimage (3 days) focal point- Ka’aba “black stone” in Mecca- dark gray black stone- theory is that the Ka’aba stone was originally beige, if you touch it absorbs your sin, where the pilgrimage begins, you walk around the building a certain direction, then where it ends you walk around the building in the other direction
jihad
not a pillar of faith “holy war” forceful conversion of people
Abu Bakar
• 1st caliph- Abu Bakr Muhammad closest friend; they did not accept this, other tribes were enemies the split
Sh'ute/Sunni
• Shite-more conservative; upset about Abu Bakr; had their own line of rulers until 1200s; upset about the rules and regulations; individual, very serious;
• Sunni- more liberal; fine wearing western clothes