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70 Cards in this Set

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agricultural revolution
worked hand in hand w/ the industrial revolution
Jethro Tull
invented seed drill, drill into the soil and planted the seed
new crops, new tools
increases agricultural output
industrial revolution
worked hand in hand w/ the agricultural revolution • Cotton(example): Harvest raw cotton: clean the cotton: spin the cotton into threads: weave the threads into fabric
• The weave part is accelerated by the Flying shuttle John Kay
• The spin part is accelerated by the “spinning Jenny” compound spinning wheel
• Short staple cotton, cotton that had thorns in it
• In 1792- In America Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin
prerequisites, new machines
• Be in a territory w/ natural resources (coal, iron ore)
• Capital- and ambitious men
• Stable gov.
• Transportation
J. Hargreaves-
invented the "spinning jenny"
• The spin part is accelerated by the “spinning Jenny” compound spinning wheel
R. Arkwright
"water spinner"
E. Whitney
"cotton gin" cleans an enormous amount of cotton
E. Cartwright
power loom- weaving cotton into cloth quicker hooked up to water
*J. Watt*
figured out how to harness steam- steam power
domestic v. factory system
domestic system- manufacturing goods at home doing one step of the process
factory system- manufacturing in a factory doing all the steps in one building
E. Chadwick & his concerns
Effects: Life changes
Slums come out of these factory towns- which are dirty, crowded apartments
Low wages and long hours
Child labor
Robert Owen
a trade unionist let all the workers join unions
Grand National Consolidated Trade Union
1st trade union
Luddites
machine-breakers, would attack factories, did not want to accept change
People's Charter (1838) & Chartism
A movement to give workers pol. power
People's Charter was the beginning document
• Chartism- 1838 People’s Charter- a list of standards/ goals that the industrial workers wanted; it placed it’s fate in the political power of the masses; wants the vote for all industrial males petition, Parliament to get paid and meet once a year, it was rejected
Congress of Vienna (1815)
European-wide Congress that decides what Europe should look like after Napoleon
Clemens von Metternich (1773-1857)
Austrian minister; he is the guiding guy for the congress, he is determined that there will be no more nationalism
Bourbon restoration
Bring back Louis XVIII as king of France
Louis XVIII(1814-1824)
-a restored monarchy, w/ a Bourbon Louis XVIII- a 183 uncle; a limited monarchy w/ a constitution (1815-1824)
He would not budge about using the Bourbon flag
Charles X (1824-1830)
he would not flow w/ the limited monarchy so in July of 1830, Frenchmen filled the streets w/ anger so Charles flees to Britain
French Revolution of 1830
after this Louis-Phillipe is king
Louis-Phillipe Duke of Orleans
the common people king
French Revolution of 1848
ends w/ Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte/ Napoleon III (1848-1871)
becomes King
1848- Louis Kossuth
revolt against Austria w/ Magyar
Magyar revolt
revolt against Austria w/ Louis Kossuth
Francis Joseph I
king of Austria- He made a deal w/ Kossuth gave them their own state inside Austria, gave them a sep. legislature and their own flag, their own currency, but Kossuth wanted their own state
1848- Frankfurt Assembly
Prussian aristocrats meet to discuss reform; they have an idea of making Prussia the center of a unified Germany
Fredrick William IV
king of Prussia
frustrated nationalism
the aristocrats were frustrated
Alexander I (1801-1825)
czar of Russia
Constantine v. Nicholas
? on who will be czar next
Constantine says no
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
against all reforms
Decembrist Revolt (1825)
the army officers do this in favor of Constantine, but are executed because Nicholas becomes czar
John Stuart Mill
father of “Classical Liberalism”
On Liberty
Liberalism- the willingness to consider gov. intervention in the economy
Mills agreed w/ Adam Smith, but thought that gov. intervention is sometimes necessary
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
Early Economists
• Essay of the principles of population
• The population will always rise to the level of food supply
• When the food supply plummets there will be drought
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
Early Economists
• Principles of Political Economics- if you are dependent on wages your life will suck!
• A subsistence wage (just enough to live) is all industrial workers will ever get
nationilism
idea that every group of people should have it's own state
socialism
idea that the gov. should regulate things, take things out of the private sector and run things for the good of the whole
utopian socialism
start over to make a perfect society
Charles Fourier (1772-1838)
phalanstery-#1620
#1620 people everything will be great
Louis Blanc (1813-1882)
socialist and communist
He created the nat’l workshop-the workers took over the factory
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
founded New Harmony- agricultural utopian socialist community that failed
Unification of Italy -March, 1861
try to unify Italy
Victor Emmanuel
King of Sardinia becomes 1st king of Italy
Count of Cavour
Victor Emmanuel's advisor trying to unify Italy from north to south
William I
King of Prussia
Guisseppe Garibaldi
"Red Shirt" army he creates working from south to north
Otto von Bismark
he orchestrates a series of three wars the Prussians announce their arrival to Europe
Danish-Prussian War (1866)
only for a few months or three weeks
Scleswig & Holsten was on the border of Prussia and Denmark
Prussia says we want Scleswig & Holsten, Denmark said no, Prussian army rolls over them
Prussia took Scleswig and gave Holsten to Austria to administer; so now they have an excuse to fight Austria
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Germany vs. Germany
Prussia took Scleswig and gave Holsten to Austria to administer; so now they have an excuse to fight Austria

The Prussians get to say that they are the #1 German power Prussia wins.
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Ems Dispatch- a spa in Prussia; Prussia invited Napolean III to the spa; then the Prussians send a false report around with false information, ends w/ the Battle of Sedan
France lost…Napolean III; Alsace & Lorraine; indemnity (pay war damages)
Now they can say that they are the # 1 power In Europe
Ems Dispatch
a spa in Prussia; Prussia invited Napolean III to the spa; then the Prussians send a false report around with false information, ends w/ the Battle of Sedan
Battle of Sedan (1871)
ends w/ the Battle of Sedan
France lost…Napolean III; Alsace & Lorraine; indemnity (pay war damages)
Now they can say that they are the # 1 power In Europe
France is sore about Sedan, Alsace and Lorraine
January 1871
changed the name of the empire to Germany and William becomes emperor of Germany
Compromise of 1867 dual monarchy
leads to the dual monarchy;
Third Republic
Constitution-1875
Had an elected head-president
2-house legislature
Boulanger Affair- 1889
The French were still sore about Alsace, Lorraine, and Sedan
At the height of his fame, he leaves France to follow his girlfriend/mistress to Switzerland, who left him for another man, when she died he committed suicide on her grave.
Alfred Dreyfus- Jewish
French military secrets were leaked to the Prussians
And Dreyfus was the scapegoat, and he was publicly humiliated, he is then convicted, he was sent to a prison Devil’s Island
Esterhazy confessed, but they convicted Drefus again, then after two more trials he was declared innocent
Alexander II
abolishes serfdom was assassinated
Alexander Herzen-Populist
thinks the serfs would be happy if they went back to the Mir-which was an agricultural village from was “the good old days”
Reform act of 1867
opens Parliament to all males
Conservatives- B. Disraeli
Liberal-W. Gladstone
both liberal like John Mill
G.F. Hegel
German philosopher
Asked the question how does change happen?
Dialectic-start with a thesis, he said is you have a thesis there will be someone who hates.
Anti-thesis- against the thesis
Sythesis- (best of both the thesis and the antithesis)
Ottoman Empire
stumbling along, waiting for it it die; sock man of Europe
Karl Marx
Builds on Hegel
Dialectic-start with a thesis, he said is you have a thesis there will be someone who hates. Anti-thesis- against the thesis
Sythesis- (best of both the thesis and the antithesis)
Karl Marx
The answer is capitalism
The thesis is capitalism
The antithesis- Proletariat (the workers)
The synthesis- communism (workers on the factories)
Modernism
-has less of an emphasis on form, and more of an emphasis on color, and the emotions that color brings forth
• Not representational
Kandinsky is an example
Theodore Herzel
Zionism- the idea that Jewish people should have a physical state of their own; beyond nationalism because you are creating a place and calling to people to come if they wish
He writes The Jewish State
• Pogrom- A gov. sponsored round-up of Jewish people
• Anti-Semitism is prevalent all throughout Europe
Fabian Society
a group of intellectuals who pushed for Nat’l Insurace Act- says the gov. job to provide health care this creates a body of health care available to Brit citizens
Labour Party
comfortable w/ socialism; providing public utilities
Nat’l Insurace Act-1911
says the gov. job to provide health care this creates a body of health care available to Brit citizens