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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
motives/means for exploration
1. Money
• By 1550 the Spanish have claimed a lot of land and made a lot of $
• Portuguese get Brazil
• INCA- had a lot of gold and silver; they buried their leaders in gold and their “favorite” wife in silver; the Spanish get there and strip all the gold
• When Jamestown was established they almost died, because they were looking for gold, but not fishing or getting food
• Agricultural crops- a) sugar cane b) tobacco – snuff c) food
2. Religion – bring Christianity to people who had never heard the gospel before; a competition to make sure your rel. was not left out; rel. freedom
3. Nationalism 1492- Spain and Portugal was the main players at first; by 1600- Spain has taken central America, south America and the Caribbean Portugal gets Brazil where they found Brazilian wood that makes dye, it was very profitable
4. Sense of Adventure

Means
1. Portugal- was superior at sea; had the best maps and wind current chart
• Prince Henry “the navigator”(1394-1460)- the king of Portugal
• He established schools and research facilities
• He had designers design faster, better boats
Prince Henry "the navigator" -Portugal (1394-1460)
the king of Portugal
• He established schools and research facilities
• He had designers design faster, better boats
Mayan Culture
Mayans civilization was in Mexico, was pretty much gone, when the Spanish got there
Aztec culture
• Locate in Central Mexico, Mexico City, capital
• Montezuma the Aztec leader, had dreams/visions of a deity returning, and the deity would be w/ a billowing cloud
• Lt. Cortez landed in 1520 and Montezuma thought the sails on the ship were the “clouds”
• The Aztec fought the Spanish to the bitter end
Hernando Cortez
• Lt. Cortez landed in 1520 and Montezuma thought the sails on the ship were the “clouds”
• The Aztec fought the Spanish to the bitter end
Francisco Pizzarro
• Francisco Pizzarro was the Spanish conqueror
• Pizzarro played 2 half-brothers contesting for the emperor position against each other, contributing to the take over
• Lima became the Spanish capital city
• Lima and Mexico city become the centers of Spanish takeover
draw the trade routes
• -conducted in triangular trade routes
• Europe was the starting point------Africa-----------Central, South and North America-----------------Europe
African slave trade & results
• International Slave Trade
• -conducted in triangular trade routes
• Europe was the starting point------Africa-----------Central, South and North America-----------------Europe
• Europe trade goods(fabrics & guns) with Africa for people(slaves)
• “Middle passage” from Africa to America
• Americas trade raw materials for slaves, so the raw materials are taken back to Europe
joint stock company
• a company whose goal was to continue trade; selling stock
mercantilism
- philosophy, new set of economic ideas, shaped the activities of European countries; ---making mother country (country that started the colonies) rich $$$
Holy Roman Empire and its condition
Hapsburgs
or
Habsburg
• Associated w/ the HRE
• Problems w/ HRE
• The population was a patchwork of very different small groups of -people
• Cannot have an elected monarchy, they will not work together
• Was the most divided state because of religious differences
• Divided into Catholic and Protestant sections, who had to be one to live in a certain area
• Austria was ruled by the Hapsburgs as well
absolutism
king having no limits on his power
Louis XIII (Bourbon) of France (1642/1643)
• Louis XIII-lay the foundation for Louis XVI died in 1642/1643
• Cardinal Richelieu was the major advisor of Louis XIII
regency
• Regents ruled in the kings name, when the king was too young
• Some regents stayed on as advisors
Cardinal Richelieu
• Cardinal Richelieu was the major advisor of Louis XIII
Louis XIV (Bourbon) of France (1643-1715)
Religion
• 1685- Edict of Fontainbleau---- retracts the Edict of Nontes
• ------Henry IV a protestant, converted to Catholicism, but issued the Edict of Nontes-assures the Protestants that they will be free to be Protestants w/o fear
• After this many Protestants left France, craftsmen
• Louis XIV’s girlfriend, a devout Catholic, convinced him to issue the Edict of Fontainbleau
• War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697)
• --Louis XIV fought to keep some land he took from HRE
• -----Alsace & Lorraine, provinces in HRE had valuable iron ore, they are always being fought over
• Europe, included Spain, Austria, & England, got behind HRE and they fought to a draw
• 1702-1713 War of Spanish Succesion- a relative of Louis the XIV could be the next king of Spain
• - Europe said “No way” fearing he would use his relative as a puppy
• At the end, his relative became king, but Louis promised Europe and Spain that he would not interfere w/ Spain, and a wall would be built in between France and Spain
Cardinal Mazarin
• Cardinal Mazarin was the major advisor to Louis XIV
Versailles/court life/ its importance
• Remodeling a lodge-he was afraid of another fronde- uprising against the king, wanted distance between him and Paris, it became the palace at Versailles
• Was 40 acres, there were suns everywhere his 1,000 servants lived on the property
• The nobles lived at his house and them went home every 3 months, because he knew the nobles were the only ones w/ enough power, and $ to start a revolt
• He convinced the nobles, that their greatest honor was to serve him, nobles fought over who would put the king to bed, and help him rise in the morning
JB Colbert & mercantilism in France
• Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Colbert was the major financial advisor to Louis XIV
• Colbert was a fan of mercantilism, and stopped Louis from spending too much $
Edict of Fountainbleau(1685) and results
• 1685- Edict of Fontainbleau---- retracts the Edict of Nontes
• ------Henry IV a protestant, converted to Catholicism, but issued the Edict of Nontes-assures the Protestants that they will be free to be Protestants w/o fear
• After this many Protestants left France, craftsmen
• Louis XIV’s girlfriend, a devout Catholic, convinced him to issue the Edict of Fontainbleau
War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697)
• War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697)
• --Louis XIV fought to keep some land he took from HRE
• -----Alsace & Lorraine, provinces in HRE had valuable iron ore, they are always being fought over
• Europe, included Spain, Austria, & England, got behind HRE and they fought to a draw
Alsace & Lorraine
were taken by Louis XIV for its rich iron ore
War of the Spanish Successors (1702-1713)
• 1702-1713 War of Spanish Succesion- a relative of Louis the XIV could be the next king of Spain
• - Europe said “No way” fearing he would use his relative as a puppy
• At the end, his relative became king, but Louis promised Europe and Spain that he would not interfere w/ Spain, and a wall would be built in between France and Spain
Hughenots
French Protestants
Bourbons of France/Spain
the royal house of France and the royal house of Spain were in the same family, but Loius XIV promised not to interfere
Hohenzollerns (of Brandenburg-Prussia) or Prussia
Hohenzollern- identified w/ Prussia
· North of the HRE
· Brandenburg Prussia eventually became Prussia
· 1415 the first Hohenzollern inherited West Prussia, and Brandenburg.
Fredrick William the Great Elector (1640-1688)
· 1640-1688- Fredrick William “the great elector”
the Army & the Junker
· JUNKER- the wealthy landowners
· Frederick makes a deal w/ the Junkers, saying that the Junkers will not revolt, against the king, and the king will not interfere w/ what they do on their land, which was most of Prussia
· When the peasants were exploited, and had no one to complain to
Hapsburgs of Austria
· 1699- Austrian Hapsburgs- took some territory in the Ottoman Empire, after a little one-sided war both parties signed the Treaty of Karlowitz, confirms Austria’s possession of Hungary & Transylvania
Treaty of Karlowitz (1699)
· 1699- Austrian Hapsburgs- took some territory in the Ottoman Empire, after a little one-sided war both parties signed the Treaty of Karlowitz, confirms Austria’s possession of Hungary & Transylvania
Hungary & Transylvania
· 1699- Austrian Hapsburgs- took some territory in the Ottoman Empire, after a little one-sided war both parties signed the Treaty of Karlowitz, confirms Austria’s possession of Hungary & Transylvania
Romonovs of Russia/ czar
Micheal (1613) Moscow the center, Kremlin was the palace in Moscow
Peter(I)the Great (1689-1725)
· He went to Europe and admired their stuff, so he came back to Russia and imposed reforms to modernize Russia
reforms and westernization
They still had serfdom, which left no room for mercantilism; many people wanted to get rid of serfdom, but no one knew what to do w/ the serfs when they were set free; and what the land owners are to do w/ all the land they can’t farm
· He feared that when he died, his successors would not follow in looking towards western Europe
"window on the west" & the Baltic area
·
“Window on the West” – he took some territory from Sweden, to get a warm water port so trade would be open all year long. He launched “the Great Northern War” (1701-1712) He lured them into Russia, cut off their supply and crushed them. He got his warm water port and called the city St. Petersburg.
Great Northern War (1701-1712)
he took some territory from Sweden, to get a warm water port so trade would be open all year long. He launched “the Great Northern War” (1701-1712) He lured them into Russia, cut off their supply and crushed them. He got his warm water port and called the city St. Petersburg.
St.Petersburg on Baltic coast
The warm water port city
James Stuart(James I of England) (James the IV of England)
James I, who was already the king of Scotland James VI who inherits England
· James I –James VI same guy
· Absolutism
· Divine right theory of government- god arranged for me to be monarch, so I do not have to share power w/ anyone
· King of England (1603-1625)- in Scotland this worked, but in England, Parliament and James were always fighting, they were waiting for James to die
divine right of theory & Stuart problems
· Divine right theory of government- god arranged for me to be monarch, so I do not have to share power w/ anyone
Charles I (1625-1649)
· They clashed so much that 1628 Charles did not call Parliament into session until 1640 they were pissed
· Since 1628 Charles collected and raised taxes (Magna Carta says you can not raise taxes w/o asking Parliament)
Petition of Right (1628)
· 1628-Parliament presented to Charles w/ the Petition of Right- a document that tried to clarify the role of the King, he signed it but then ignores it
1629-1640 "personal rule" "ship money"
· 1629-1640 kings personal rule, because Parliament had no say; he keeps raising taxes, and created new taxes (ship money) he did not call Parliament into session
Archbishop Laud & Sottish Church & Scottish revolution (1640)
· 1640- Scotland threatened to rebel against Charles because he was the head of the church of England, he told the church of Scotland, head who was Archbishop Laud, that he wanted to make the church of Scotland like the church of England, whether you like it or not
English Civil War 1642-1660
Charles vs. Parliament
 Cavaliers-the followers of the King, royal troops, nobility, kings advisors
 Roundheads- the followers of Parliament,-shaving your head was an outward sign of your support-New Model Army
 While Charles is fleeing to Scotland, the New Model Army captured him and took him prisoner
Oliver Cromwell
Creator of the Commonwealth

1653 - Nixed the Commonwealth, and established the Protectorate
Charles II
Son of Charles, reigned from 1660 - 1685

Was considered a Catholic
James II
Brother of Charles II, reigned from 1685 - 1688

Was also considered a Catholic

Parliament was waiting for James to die so Mary or Ann would become queen
-Then James got married and had a son
-Then he abdicated (resigned)
"Glorious Revolution" of 1688
The overthrow of James II of England by union of Parliamentarians and William III.

Referred to as the "Bloodless Revolution," due to no fights erupting.

Marked the last time the monarch would hold absolute power.
William & Mary (of Orange)
Parliament asks Mary to take over the thrown after James II. She weds William III of Orange, to which they both preside in rule.

While William was fighting, Mary governed the realm and often acted on William's advice.
Bill of Rights (1689)
1689

A document that outlined the powers the monarchy were allowed, in addition to rights citizens were believed to have.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) & Leviathan
A doctrine that proposed that the stronger the government, the better - in order to properly protect its citizens.

Without a government, people were believed to be ruthless and uncivilized, prompting the need for a government for the citizen's protection.

(More on p. 438)
John Locke (1632 - 1704) & Two Treatises on Government
Work that emphasised without a government, people could live in harmony with one another.

But government is still needed to protect citizens' rights - the only right the government should have.

(More on p. 439-440)
Nicholas Copernicus (1473 - 1543) & heliocentric conception
The universe was “heliocentric”

The sun was the center of the universe; 8 perfect orbits (refer to sheet)
Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) & "3 laws of planetary motion"
LOOK AT DA SHEET!
Galileo (1564 - 1642) & telescope discoveries & "problem of motion"
Credited for creating the first telescope

Was intrigued by how the universe moved.

(More on the handout sheet)
Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) & Pricipia & "universal gravitation"
"Principia" outlined the ideas of how Earth moved.

"Universal gravitation" refers to every object having an attraction to another.
Commonwealth (1649 - 1653)
Created after the execution of the king as a republic.

A Council of State was appointed to manage affairs with Cromwell as the center amongst it's members.
Protectorate (1653 - 1658)
Formed by Cromwell after the dissolution of Parliament