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35 Cards in this Set

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French Kings- Capets
France- slow piece-by-piece painful process in tearing down feudalism
• Starts around 987 –Hugh Capet became king new line of French kings
• Capet was the count of Paris related to the royal family became the royal family
Hugh Capet 987
Starts around 987 –Hugh Capet became king new line of French kings
Philip II(Augustus, 1180-1223)
Phillip “Augustus” takes the power away from John I
Beat John I at the Battle of Bouvines
Philip IV (the fair, 1285-1314)
Phillip the fair”- drop dead gorgeous; he was ruthless
• He needed more money so he raised taxes for the Jewish people so high, that most of them left France. Then he decided the tax the Catholic Church- specifically he taxed the Knights Templars(fighting monks), then he taxed the church’s property.
• The pope was already angry about Phillip taxing the Knights Templars, he gets seriously pissed off about him taxing the churches property. Threatening ex-communication and interdict. So Phillip IV hired a group of thugs to go beat up the 80- yr. old pope. They dragged him out of the house, beat him up, and left him in the snow, they told him Phillip arranged it, the pope died several days later.
• Phillip said the pope should be French, the church was too scared to not give it to him; Then Phillip said the pope should live in France; they built him a palace in France. Avignon-was the new city built, so the pope lived there.
Avignon Papacy
• Phillip said the pope should be French, the church was too scared to not give it to him; Then Phillip said the pope should live in France; they built him a palace in France. Avignon-was the new city built, so the pope lived there
Henry IV (HRE) (1056-1106)
• Follows Otto; The church doesn’t like their leaders being pol. leaders
• Henry gets kicked out of the church (ex-comminication) he doesn’t exist anymore in the church’s eyes; he doesn’t care; but his advisors remind him that if he doesn’t exist in the church’s eyes, they can call for a new emperor
• Interdict- the pope closes all the churches no weddings and no funerals
• Henry goes to see the pope, he knocks on the door and the pope said “there is no such person as Henry IV Holy Roman Empire” and closes the door; Henry decides to take off his shoes (a sign of humility) he knocks again the pope says again said “there is no such person as Henry IV Holy Roman Empire”, Henry stood there for 4 days until the pope would see him, so the pope finally saw him and brought him back in the church, but said “my people will not work for you” so after hundreds of years Rome still has no state structure
divisions in Italy
Italy
• Northern Italy had wealthy trading towns
• Southern Italy-everyone were farmers
• The pope owned land in between northern and southern Italy
• - no one wanted to challenge the pope
• So Italy is not unified until 1860
Reconquista in Spain (700 to 1492)
• No one deals w/ them because they are taken over by Muslims
• Reconquista- re-conquering Spain takes 700 yrs.
• By the early 1400 they rounded the Muslims up in Granada and pushes them out
• Aragon- mid 1400s – Ferdinand of Aragon- was the leader of the house of Aragon
• Castile- mid 1400s- Isabella – was the leader of the house of Castile
• Ferdinand wanted to unify Spain so attacked Castile believing the armies would not fight for a woman but they did and beat Aragon’s armies
• So Ferdinand married Isabella at least in their own minds they kept Castile and Aragon separate; when their children inherit, they inherit a united Spain under a strong central government
• In Spain the church was there whenever they needed prayer or anything; there is a close relationship between the church and Spain
Ferdinand (Aragon) & Isabella (Castile)
• Aragon- mid 1400s – Ferdinand of Aragon- was the leader of the house of Aragon
• Castile- mid 1400s- Isabella – was the leader of the house of Castile
• Ferdinand wanted to unify Spain so attacked Castile believing the armies would not fight for a woman but they did and beat Aragon’s armies
• So Ferdinand married Isabella at least in their own minds they kept Castile and Aragon separate; when their children inherit, they inherit a united Spain under a strong central government
excommunication & interdict
ex-communication is getting kicked out of the church
• Interdict- the pope closes all the churches no weddings and no funerals
Black Death (1347-1453) bubonic plague
• Killed 25%-50% of Europe (spread from 1347-1350)- wiped out ½ the population of Europe in four years
• Symptoms
• -Cough
• Blood vessels deteriorated under the skin, it looks like you were beaten up
• The results of this plague
• -incredible population decline
• -Economic historians say wages rose after the black death
• -people who didn’t have land gets farm of their own because the families that owned that land dies off
• In the mid 1600s the population build back up to where it was before the black plague
• The new world opened opportunities to not lose the higher wages that resulted from the black death
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
• Between France & England
• There was a lot of baggage between these countries
• Flanders Wool Trade – they have to deal w/ each other to do this and it doesn’t work
• In northern France the best weavers were, but it was not cold enough in France, so the France weavers bought fabric from England sheep farmers, both of them believed they were being overcharged.
• In 1337 the French king died, w/ no clear successor, so the English king Edward III said “pick me” England attacks France multiple times trying to make Edward III king, France never attacks England
• England was the projected winner because…..
• France had no progressed militarily
• France was still trying to break in a monarchy
• English opened their military to peasants and equipped then w/ a long bow (incredible range and amazing accuracy)
• For the first 2/3 of the war the French lost
• Battle of Agincourt – French scraped together 8,000-9,000; the French lost about 6,000 nobles in one battle, the English 300, the French was ready to give up
• Joan of Arc- a young French girl, who had visions of France beating the English in a battle, she believed this was a vision of the future; she talked to nobles and convinced the king to wait a little while before surrendering; the English said she was a witch
• The French decided to use the long bow; in the last 35 yrs of the war, the French make a comeback , when the war ended the French won, but the English kept the town of Calais
• The English burned her at the stake
Renaissance
rebirth of culture and intelligence
1st stage- Italian
2nd stage- Northern
Italian Renaissance
Italian
• Late 1200s
• Is first because they have very wealthy trading towns, they want art to reflect their splendor
Northern Renassance
• 100 years later; writers
• They admired the Greeks
• Humanism- “seeing what humans can accomplish”
• Renaissance man- you are awesome at and involved in everything; you can do it all
• Leonard di Vince was a physical scientist
• Giotto he was the “man who rescued painting”
• he made painting look more realistic
• his goal was making paintings look not flat
• His rules
• - perspective
• -shading
• -color
• -size
• He worked in fresco ; meaning you mix your painting w/ plaster so that it will dry slower so if you make a mistake you can erase it before it becomes permanent
Renaissance
rebirth of culture and intelligence
1st stage- Italian
2nd stage- Northern
Italian Renaissance
Italian
• Late 1200s
• Is first because they have very wealthy trading towns, they want art to reflect their splendor
Renaissance
rebirth of culture and intelligence
1st stage- Italian
2nd stage- Northern
Northern Renassance
• 100 years later; writers
• They admired the Greeks
• Humanism- “seeing what humans can accomplish”
• Leonard di Vince was a physical scientist
Italian Renaissance
Italian
• Late 1200s
• Is first because they have very wealthy trading towns, they want art to reflect their splendor
"Renaissance Man"
you are awesome at and involved in everything; you can do it all
Northern Renassance
• 100 years later; writers
• They admired the Greeks
• Humanism- “seeing what humans can accomplish”
• Leonard di Vince was a physical scientist
"Renaissance Man"
you are awesome at and involved in everything; you can do it all
Giotto- his goals & techniques
Giotto he was the “man who rescued painting”
• he made painting look more realistic
• his goal was making paintings look not flat
• His rules
• - perspective
• -shading
• -color
• -size
• He worked in fresco ; meaning you mix your painting w/ plaster so that it will dry slower so if you make a mistake you can erase it before it becomes permanent
fresco
• He worked in fresco ; meaning you mix your painting w/ plaster so that it will dry slower so if you make a mistake you can erase it before it becomes permanent
Donatello
• sculpture, he did for sculpture what Giotto did for painting
• he studied was the Greeks, he drew blueprints of Greek sculpture
• He said “lets sculpt from live models” they used to sculpt from sketches
Niccolo Machiavelli & The Prince
• He wrote “The Prince” –was advice to the person that would unify Italy
• “The Prince” the theme was “the end justifies the means”- no morals and no ethics, do what you have to, to get the job done
Johann Gutenberg (1445-1450)
he would carve a wooden stamp out of each page,
• He developed a wire holder and you could carve individual letters called “moving type”
Thomas More & Utopia
• Thomas More- Englishman, a pol. leader, an aristocrat
• Wrote Utopia believed that to bring out the best in people you have to watch their environment
• In Utopia he sketched out his idea of the perfect society
• He was a friend & advisor of Henry VIII, Henry wanted to divorce his wife, the pope said no, all of his advisors, except Sir Thomas More said they would back up Henry, like he asked them to. Henry said back me up or I will publicly execute you, so Thomas More was executed
Erasmus
• Teacher, lived in many places in Europe,
• Wrote In Praise of Folly folly-human behavior; a satire
• He hoped people would laugh and then change their behavior, it backfire, the officials he made fun of did not appreciate it, and they kept moving him around
Miguel Cerrantes
• From Spain
• Wrote Don Quixote
Shakespeare
• Dealt w/ some of the problems of being human
Brothers of the Common Life
• Wanted the Bible to translated into the common language
John Huss
• Lived in the Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
• Blamed the church for the HRE not developing
• Some people thought the church needed to back out of politics, some thought the church was too concerned w/ education
justification by faith
"the just shall live by faith"
hairshirts or nothing can justify you, except for God