Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/104

Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hernando Cortez
from Spain; conquered Aztecs and there leader Montezuma
encomienda system- Bartolome de las Casas
system for the Spanish conquerors that allowed them to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers, but the conquerors were supposed to offer protection, pay them wages and supervise spiritual needs
Triangle trade routes
• Europe was the starting point------Africa-----------Central, South and North America-----------------Europe
• Bartolome de las Casas-
a friar that fought for Indians after observing the cruel treatment towards them in the conquest of Cuba
joint-stock company
goal was to create and continue trade
- British East India Company- hired pirates to ambush other ships. They wanted to keep the slave trade going.
mercantilism
philosophy, new set of economic ideas, shaped the activities of European countries; ---making mother country (country that started the colonies) rich $$$
• Knew there was a limited amount of $ to be made
absolutism and divine right theory
king had absolute power; they were king because God wanted them to be king
Louis XIV(France-
The Ultimate- 1642-1643 Cardinal Mazarin- churchmen and politically knowledgeable
Jean Baptiste Colbert was his finance administrator- he helped him deal with his money wisely and made him lots of money-
he was afraid of another fronde- uprising against the king, wanted distance between him and Paris, it became the palace at Versailles
Edict of Fontainblue
retracts the Edict of Nontes
Edict of Nontes-assures the Protestants that they will be free to be Protestants w/o fear
Huguenots
French protestants moved out of France after Edict of Fountainblue
Bourbons of France and Spain
• 1702-1713 War of Spanish Succession- a relative of Louis the XIV could be the next king of Spain
• - Europe said “No way” fearing he would use his relative as a puppy
• At the end, his relative became king, but Louis promised Europe and Spain that he would not interfere w/ Spain, and a wall would be built in between France and Spain
Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg- Prussia (Germany)
• Brandenburg Prussia eventually became Prussia
• 1415 the first Hohenzollern inherited West Prussia, and Brandenburg.
• 1640-1688- Fredrick William “the great elector”
• Hohenzollern- were always in military uniform
• Built a strong army, that beat everything they fought against
• JUNKER- the wealthy landowners
Hapsburgs of Austria
-- H- become associated with Austria- Austrian H beceome more powerful rulers but they are not like the Bourbons in France-
Treaty of Karlowitz
gave Austria, Translyvania and Hungary after a small war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire
Romanovs
were czars of Russia; palace was in Moscow
Peter I(the Great)
• He went to Europe and admired their stuff, so he came back to Russia and imposed reforms to modernize Russia
• They still had serfdom, which left no room for mercantilism; many people wanted to get rid of serfdom, but no one knew what to do w/ the serfs when they were set free; and what the land owners are to do w/ all the land they can’t farm
• He feared that when he died, his successors would not follow in looking towards western Europe

“Window on the West” – he took some territory from Sweden, to get a warm water port so trade would be open all year long. He launched “the Great Northern War” (1701-1712) He lured them into Russia, cut off their supply and crushed them. He got his warm water port and called the city St. Petersburg.
English Civil War
Chalres sat down and talked with him- read it signed it and didn’t follow it
Rules wo consulting parliament or calling it into session- 1640 Charles is forced to call parliament into session- scared to levy taxes, and the fact he is faceing a revolt in Scotland over Religion- archbishop Lawd decided to remake the church of Scotland install formailtiy and the Scots don’t like this
After 11 years he finally calls them into session- they did not look at it that way
Triennial act- parliament after 3 years if they have not met they can meet without having being called in by the king.
New Model Army Roundheads
- disciplined army and becomes center of whole parliament-- Most people that follow are middle or low class and they are called round heads- shaved heads as practical nature
Cavaliers
King’s side- many noble and army stays with him at first th cavaliers- long flowing hair and fancy clothes
Oliver Cromwell
1640’s charles gets out of England and gets captured King is prisoner of Parliament and they didn’t want t take him risoner but they did. Oliver Cromwell put him in prison in the name of parliament and is executed Jan 69 Pendeulum theory swings again. Oliver Cromwell loved and hated individual comes King of Egnlad Common wealth and the protectorate- New absolute ruler of England
Restoration (1660)
bring back the monarchy by putting Charles II on the English throne
"Glorious Revolution"
-James II was Catholic; Parliament was waiting for James to die so Mary or Ann would become queen
-Then James got married and had a son
-Then he abdicated (resigned)
The Glorious revolution
Parliament asked Charles daughter Mary to rule, Mary is married to William of Orange they ruled together, when they both die, Mary’s sister Anne ruled as queen
• It was a Glorious revolution because no one had to die
they are presented with the document the bill of rights 1689 outline of traditional way that parlaiment assumed the british gov would go. Things king could and not do things parliment could and not do sets stage for peaceful rule for years and years
Thomas Hobbs & Leviathan
Leviathan the stronger the gov. the better, so it can protect its citizens safety, he thought w/ gov. people would be ruthless, and self-seeking, gov. was needed for protection
John Locke/tabalu rasa
Two Treatises on Government he thought w/ gov. people would live in harmony w/ each other, but gov. is still need to protect people’s rights, the gov. is limited to only protect people’s rights
-contract- if the people or the gov. get out of line the other can reel him in

Every baby is born w/ a personality (tabula rasa) there environment affects there personality
Sir Isaac Newton
Principals – he outlined the ideas of how the earth moved
1) an object at rest stays at rest, it will move in a straight line unless an outside force affects it
2) the stronger the force the more it moves
3) every action has an equal and opposite reaction
“universal gravitation”- every object has an attraction to every other object
All of this together makes the universe work
William Harvey
was interested in how the heart worked- circulation; he dissected unclaimed dead bodies from the morgue, he was the 1st guy to map out the body
Antoine Lavoisier
one of the fathers of modern chemistry
-before him was alchemy
baron de Montequieu
• interested in gov.; asked the question is there one form of gov. that fits everybody? He found that the answer is no; any gov. is good if it fits the needs of the people that live under it Spirit of the Laws- said any gov. is good if it fits the needs of the people that live under it
• Republic- some sharing of responsibilities w/ the people; small country, let the people have a voice in gov.
• Monarchy- a gov. that was almost absolute; big country, if the people aren’t wise on politics
• Despotism- an absolute ruler,
deism
God is distant and impersonal creator not involved with the affairs of humans. Does not want a personal relationship with humans
Rosseau/ The Social Contract
• Gov should be aiming for the general will- the greatest gov for the greatest number
• The Social Contract – gov. was a necessary evil
Adam Smith physiacrats/ The Wealth of Nations
Physiocrat- a philosophe interested in the natural laws of economics
• 1776- The Wealth of Nations- importance of land-agriculture; supply & demand
• Laissez-faire- “let it lay there” gov. should leave business alone
pietism
rel. values, that said it was important to search for a deep, personal relationship with God.
Hanoverians (George)
England-British
1689-Bill of Rights
William and Mary died
Anne had 13 children, and lived to see all of them die, so when Anne dies Parliament asked cousins of Anne, the Hanoverians, to be king & queen
• George I did not speak English, had a translator
• The Rise of Parliament- helped strip power away from the monarch
• George II dies in 1760
• George III wanted to reverse the trend, but was busy w/ the American Revolution; which he lost, shooting down his credibility
prime minister
• Prime Minister- go between for the Parliament and the monarchy
• Robert Walpole – early prime minister
• William Pitt- formed the modern role of prime minister
Fredrick II
the enlightenment ideals
-he actually used the army on the Austrian queen the Hapsburgs of Austria
Maria Thersa
Queen of Austria
• Fredrick took Silesia from Maria Theresa
Catherine the Great
Peter III 1762 Czar of Russia- died the same year. 8 ys old snake. Take a teeny gullitine and chops rats heads off.

Married Catherine- German noblewoman- parent married her off.

Very smart- Russians came to her and said they would make her czarina.
Peter was found murdered shortly after he became czar. She was tsarina
the first woman- Catherine the Great She is a would be philosophe.
Hosted many salons. She wrote many things.
divided into 50 provinces of Russia
Pugachev- Russian orthodox priest launched Pugachev’s rebellion went on for years. Big disappointment, they thought she would back them up but she didn’t
1785- Charter of nobility- gave a little power to the nobles in the government
Partition of Poland
king of poles- was elected- not much power not even polish

3 partitions- 1772 1795

Austria

Prussia

Russia

All 3 bordered Poland

Reappears after WWI
Bastille July 14, 1789
mob met with national assembly and everyone was all wound up the bastile was a symbol of the king. King had left paris and was at Versaille
Declaration of Pillnitz
- # of European States (especially the British) that intended the stop the revolution, and put Louis back, even if they have to invade France
- Some of the European countries feared that the people in there countries might revolt as well
- In 1791- There is an international army at the gates of Paris
Committee of Public Safety
led by Robespeirre
Reign of Terror
led by Robespierre killed people that didn't agree w/ the new France
Concordat of 1801
- the Church returned to France, but the clergy are paid by Napoleon
Civil Code/ Code Napoleon
1804 everyone was equal before the law
"Grand Empire"
”- Napoleons empire in Europe
Napoleon put his brother on the throne of Spain; which the Spanish people did not like
Napoleon destroyed The Holy Roman Empire, and replaced it w/ the Germanic Confederation
Napoleon had Austria on a leash. He was able to exert his influence all over Europe. By 1807 Napoleon had his hand on everything that happened in Europe, except for Britain and Russia.
Adam Smith physiacrats/ The Wealth of Nations
Physiocrat- a philosophe interested in the natural laws of economics
• 1776- The Wealth of Nations- importance of land-agriculture; supply & demand
• Laissez-faire- “let it lay there” gov. should leave business alone
pietism
rel. values, that said it was important to search for a deep, personal relationship with God.
Hanoverians (George)
England-British
1689-Bill of Rights
William and Mary died
Anne had 13 children, and lived to see all of them die, so when Anne dies Parliament asked cousins of Anne, the Hanoverians, to be king & queen
• George I did not speak English, had a translator
• The Rise of Parliament- helped strip power away from the monarch
• George II dies in 1760
• George III wanted to reverse the trend, but was busy w/ the American Revolution; which he lost, shooting down his credibility
prime minister
• Prime Minister- go between for the Parliament and the monarchy
• Robert Walpole – early prime minister
• William Pitt- formed the modern role of prime minister
Fredrick II
the enlightenment ideals
-he actually used the army on the Austrian queen the Hapsburgs of Austria
Maria Thersa
Queen of Austria
• Fredrick took Silesia from Maria Theresa
Catherine the Great
Peter III 1762 Czar of Russia- died the same year. 8 ys old snake. Take a teeny gullitine and chops rats heads off.

Married Catherine- German noblewoman- parent married her off.

Very smart- Russians came to her and said they would make her czarina.
Peter was found murdered shortly after he became czar. She was tsarina
the first woman- Catherine the Great She is a would be philosophe.
Hosted many salons. She wrote many things.
divided into 50 provinces of Russia
Pugachev- Russian orthodox priest launched Pugachev’s rebellion went on for years. Big disappointment, they thought she would back them up but she didn’t
1785- Charter of nobility- gave a little power to the nobles in the government
Partition of Poland
king of poles- was elected- not much power not even polish

3 partitions- 1772 1795

Austria

Prussia

Russia

All 3 bordered Poland

Reappears after WWI
Bastille July 14, 1789
mob met with national assembly and everyone was all wound up the bastile was a symbol of the king. King had left paris and was at Versaille
Declaration of Pillnitz
- # of European States (especially the British) that intended the stop the revolution, and put Louis back, even if they have to invade France
- Some of the European countries feared that the people in there countries might revolt as well
- In 1791- There is an international army at the gates of Paris
Committee of Public Safety
led by Robespeirre
Reign of Terror
led by Robespierre killed people that didn't agree w/ the new France
Concordat of 1801
- the Church returned to France, but the clergy are paid by Napoleon
Civil Code/ Code Napoleon
1804 everyone was equal before the law
"Grand Empire"
”- Napoleons empire in Europe
Napoleon put his brother on the throne of Spain; which the Spanish people did not like
Napoleon destroyed The Holy Roman Empire, and replaced it w/ the Germanic Confederation
Napoleon had Austria on a leash. He was able to exert his influence all over Europe. By 1807 Napoleon had his hand on everything that happened in Europe, except for Britain and Russia.
Continental System
Napoleon blockades the British ports, because Britain is an island and depended on trade; planning to weaken them while his armies focused on Russia
Britain retaliated w/ a blockade of France
Battle of Leipzig
In Germany at the Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon is stopped and the French army is defeated. Napoleon got away and the international army followed him into France and captured him,
He was exiled to Elba, but he escapes
Battle of Waterloo
He was exiled to Elba, but he escapes onto the south part of France, he travels up through France gathering support and soldiers. So the Europeans get together another army, and defeat Napoleon again at Waterloo
They are afraid to kill him, so they exiled him again to St. Helena, in a prison where he was watched until he died.
agricultural revolution
• Took a smaller amount of farmers to produce the same amount of crops, making it possible for the industrial revolution possible
industrial revoultion
worked hand in hand w/ the agricultural revolution • Cotton(example): Harvest raw cotton: clean the cotton: spin the cotton into threads: weave the threads into fabric
• The weave part is accelerated by the Flying shuttle John Kay
• The spin part is accelerated by the “spinning Jenny” compound spinning wheel
• Short staple cotton, cotton that had thorns in it
• In 1792- In America Eli Whitney invented the cotton gi
J. Hargreaves
invented the "spinning jenny"
• The spin part is accelerated by the “spinning Jenny” compound spinning wheel
J. Watt
figured out how to harness steam- steam power
domestic vs. factory
domestic system- manufacturing goods at home doing one step of the process
factory system- manufacturing in a factory doing all the steps in one building
Luddites & Chartism
machine-breakers, would attack factories, did not want to accept change
Congress of Vienna & Clemens von Metternich
A movement to give workers pol. power
People's Charter was the beginning document
• Chartism- 1838 People’s Charter- a list of standards/ goals that the industrial workers wanted; it placed it’s fate in the political power of the masses; wants the vote for all industrial males petition, Parliament to get paid and meet once a year, it was rejected
Louis Kossuth and Maygar Revolt
king of Austria- He made a deal w/ Kossuth gave them their own state inside Austria, gave them a sep. legislature and their own flag, their own currency, but Kossuth wanted their own state
Decembrist Revolt
the army officers do this in favor of Constantine, but are executed because Nicholas becomes czar
THomas Malthus
Early Economists
• Essay of the principles of population
• The population will always rise to the level of food supply
• When the food supply plummets there will be drought
Charles Fourier
phalanstery-#1620
#1620 people everything will be great
Robert Owen
founded New Harmony- agricultural utopian socialist community that failed
Victor Emmanuel
King of Sardinia becomes 1st king of Italy
Otto von Bismarck
he orchestrates a series of three wars the Prussians announce their arrival to Europe
Franco-Prussian War
Ems Dispatch- a spa in Prussia; Prussia invited Napolean III to the spa; then the Prussians send a false report around with false information, ends w/ the Battle of Sedan
France lost…Napolean III; Alsace & Lorraine; indemnity (pay war damages)
Now they can say that they are the # 1 power In Europe
"dual monarchy"
leads to the dual monarchy;
Third Republic of France and Dreyfus Affair
Constitution-1875
Had an elected head-president
2-house legislature
Boulanger Affair- 1889
The French were still sore about Alsace, Lorraine, and Sedan
At the height of his fame, he leaves France to follow his girlfriend/mistress to Switzerland, who left him for another man, when she died he committed suicide on her grave.
Alfred Dreyfus- Jewish
French military secrets were leaked to the Prussians
And Dreyfus was the scapegoat, and he was publicly humiliated, he is then convicted, he was sent to a prison Devil’s Island
Esterhazy confessed, but they convicted Drefus again, then after two more trials he was declared innocent
Alexander II
abolishes serfdom was assassinated by a suicide bomber
Eastern Question/ Ottoman Empire
who gets what? after O.E. crumbles it is stumbling along, waiting for it it die; sock man of Europe
Karl Marx & economic dialectic
FAther of Classicam communism
Builds on Hegel
Dialectic-start with a thesis, he said is you have a thesis there will be someone who hates. Anti-thesis- against the thesis
Sythesis- (best of both the thesis and the antithesis)
Karl Marx
The thesis is capitalism
The antithesis- Proletariat (the workers)
The synthesis- communism (workers on the factories)
Zionism T.Herzel
Zionism- the idea that Jewish people should have a physical state of their own; beyond nationalism because you are creating a place and calling to people to come if they wish
He writes The Jewish State
Count Witte
Witte an important advisor said it was time to industrialize
Nicholas II & Alexander of Russia
uprepared to be czar
Russo-Japanese War, October Manifesto
Prussia helped Japan build up an army
Russo-Japanese War (1905) Russia could not believe that they lost so badly
January 1905- Bloody Sunday – a group of peasants gathered on the czar’s lawn of his winter palace; someone tells security to disperse the crowd, the guards fire into the crowd and lots of innocent people are hurt
October 1905-October Manifesto- list of promises that Nicholas issues in
• Promises to reform the army
• Duma- legislative body; a group of nobles that czar doesn’t have to listen to, so he doesn’t
• Promises new liberties; lifting censorship
He planned to follow through on this, but he was still unprepared and torn by his advisors, and as time passed nothing is done, and Russia is unstable by WWI
Africa Scramble
1890-Bismarck-“Berlin Conference” who had claimed what in Africa? They marked up the map of the spheres of influence in Africa; lots of conflict
Reinsurance Treaty
In the 1880s Bismarck created the Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria, Italy, added Russia by signing the Reinsurance Treaty to keep Germany from fighting a 2-front war
Schieffen Plan
• Schlieffen Plan – said if we are in a two front war, do this 1) We knock out France, but for it to work they had to start the war early
Triple Entente
Britian, France, and Russia
Serbia, Sarajevo and "Black Hand"
• June 1914- Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the next king of Austria) and his wife Sophia went to Sarajevo went to Austria
• On their way to the church to make a speech, a member of the “Black Hand” publicly assassinated Ferdinand and Sophia
blank check memo
• Austria is pissed and they contact Germany asking how far will you back us? and William said we will back you as far as you want
total war, attrition, U-boats
civilians are caught in war; wearing people down German subs;
Ferdinand and Sophia
Caused WWW w/ thier assaination
RAsputin
advisor to Nicholas; tried to have him killed
Revolution in Russia
Bolsheviks- V.I. Lenin (Red) Leon Trotsky
Mensheviks (White)
By 1918- it was clear that Kerensky and the Duma were fading out of the picture
1918- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- took Russia out of WWI
By 1919- the Bolsheviks are in charge of the new Russia
Lenin and Trotsky had a falling out and Trotsky left
Lenin is left to create the new Russia
Lenin had Nicholas and his wife and children killed
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
got Russia out of WWI; between Russia and Germany
Alex. Kerensky
leader of the Duma;tried to steer Russia to democracy
Trotsky
friend of Lenin
2nd Battle of MArne
US enters WWI
Russia leaves WWI
Germany retreates
Woodrow Wilson and WWI
14 points- nationalism
- let every group have their own state
- No secrets
- League of Nations –peace
-don't blame
war-guilt clause
- Clause 321- this war is the fault of the German empire & we are going to make you pay reparations that are paid until 1999
Treaty of Versilles
ends WWI;- George Clemenson (French) David Lloyd George (Britain) Woodrow Wilson (US)