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108 Cards in this Set

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Crete facts:
Owed wealth largely to flourishing trade. Ships transported all over Med sea.
Island settled approx 4000 - 3000
Not very productive growing crops - had to go to the sea for the thing they cannot produce on their own.
Minoan facts:
People of Crete
Very elegant people
Painting - good art
Happy, artistic, athletic activity not limited to men.
Capital city of Crete
Knossos
Knossos facts:
1375 invaded by Mycenae and was defeated. Knossos and all of Crete fell to Mycenae.
Palace of Knossos facts:
Referred as: King Mino's Labyrinth
Hall of the Double Axe - In complex of Palace of Knosss. Commemorates Mother God.
Megaron/Queens Room - in Palace, had a flush toilet
Who opened the door to study Minoan ancient history?
Sir Arthur Evans - went below the Palace of Knossos and found artifacts.
Early Minoan facts:
2900 - 2100
Settlements common on east side of Crete
More people coming in at this time, new people uplifting to people already there.
Middle Minoan facts:
2100 - 1600
Dominant capital will shift to Knossos
Many lavish palaces being built
Great Navy
More roads being built for self use and bring more people in
Late Minoan facts:
1600 - 1400
Govt consisted of King. confusion of exact Govt.
King has religous responsibilities.
Head of religion (female) Mother God
1400 - Theory of earthquake destroys Minoan civilization.
Great Mother Goddess facts:
Leading deity - head of religion, will compete with christianity.
Has good and evil powers
Likely to have more hands on role without a hierarchy of priests.
Symbols of the Great Mother Goddess:
Double - Axe = Shows secular power, the power of the position. Power to extract obedience.
Dove - Reps peace
Snake - Reps fertility
Ancient Minoan linear forms of writing facts:
Linear A & B
A - pictographic, not fully deciphered.
B - Greek modification, B is adapted from A which was borrowed by the Minoans.
Types of Minoan art:
Dark color - male
Light color - female
Frescoes - Type of painting with wet plaster and putting pieces together. Easily destroyed with island air. difficult to maintain
Peloponnesus facts:
Name for Southern Greece
Hooked to Greek mainland
4000 - 3000 BC settlements began, northern (Macedonia) first
Mycenaean Facts:
People of Greece
Mycenae - principle city.
Mycenean History
Early Helladic - 2500 - 1900
Middle Helladic - 1900 - 1600
Late Helladic - 1600 - 1500
Early Helladic facts:
1st of Mycenean history
People from asia minor & uplifting of culture against people already settled there.
Middle Helladic facts:
True Greek emerging - more people coming down from N. & NW Greece
Mycenean civ will last until 1200 - chaotic times will cause demise.
Settlements in Athens & Thebes
Late Helladic facts:
Certain burial practices
- Shaft Grave - vertical shafts in rocks.
- Beehive - Tombs cut into sides of hills. Dome shaped - hence the name beehive.
Self taught archeologist that uncovers artifacts around Troy, Greece.
In quest to find wealth - destroys many treasures.
Heinrich Schlumann
Greece facts:
Not good for farming - mountainous, polis.
Mt. Olympus 10,000 ft high
Trojans & Mycenea = Greeks
Greeks are very prone to fight each other.
Mycenae facts:
Largest Mycenean walled in city
Inner city warfare common
Adopted Minoan religion to have a female deity.
Mycenean art - Gods warlike
Art was inferior to Minoans
Wall around Mycenae.
Got its name from the Cyclops - one eyed giant.
Cyclopaean
Parts of the Cyclopaean where expression of sculpting is.
Lions Gate
Who wrote the story of the Trojan war?
Homer
Aeolians?
Distinct Greek Group of people.
Spread widely over many areas
Ionians
Greek Group - the Thinkers of the Ancient world.
Represented in cities of: Athens, Miletus
Dorians
Greek People - Had the biggest slave system/organization of all.
Very mean and brutal people. Slave killing days - 1x per yr.
Represented in Sparta
In dark ages - a very common body.
Main body to give advice to the king.
1000 - 500 BC
Council of Elders
This govt group not very strong until the Golden age.
Popular Assembly
Greek art history
1000 BC - Dark ages - lack of realism. Anatomy distorted. Reflection of Egyption art.
500 BC - Golden age - becoming more artistic. Athlete's steriotypes
300 BC - Realism begins in art/sculpting. shown in someone dying.
Homeric or Olympic
Gods - human form - model beauty.
taller than humans, had immortality and immorality. Lived on Mt. Olympus, needed food & sleep, but could not die.
God of heaven & earth
Religion headed by ?
Zeus
Wife of Zeus
Hera
God of the Underworld
Hades
God of the Sea
Poseidon
Goddess of Fertility
Demeter
Goddess of Love & Lust
Aphrodite
Zeus's favorite god
goddess o Wisdom & Justice
Patron deity of Athens
Athena
God of wine - fertility.
Dronysirs
Who wrote Works & Days - brought to light that the rich were hogging up all of the land.
Hesoid
Reasons for Greek Colonization:
Prior to 750 - Greek nobles were unhappy that they couldn't buy things. Very discontented.
Greek colonization 750 - 500 did what?
Established 3 colonies
1. Massila
2. Naucratis
3. Magna Graecia
Greek colony established in Southern France.
Massila
Greek colony established in Egypt
Naucratis
Greek colony established in S. Italy & Sicily.
Magna Graecia
Oligarchy
Ruled by a few - collection of people within a cty unit.
Aristocracy
People with an emence amount of wealth
Monarchy
Ruled by a single person
Phoenicia facts:
At the top of the Levantine Coast.
aka Sidonians
Concentrated on trade of Tyre Red dye
Phoenicians facts:
people of Phoenicia
Not true originals - use previous ideas. Producers of normal/common items.
Syria facts:
East of Phoenicia
Damascus is the capital - has been called the "Pearl of the East"
Palestine facts:
Land of Canaan (modern day Palestine)
People called Canaanites
Settled by the Philistines after their invastions of Egypt
Philistine facts:
Indo-European
Strange group - kingdoms along the Levantine Coast
They were one of the best known Sea Peoples.
Settled into Palestine
Phoenician cities:
Beyrut
Byblos - Sold parchment. Believe where 'bible' came from
Tyre - supreme early navy
Sidon -
Phoenician colonies:
Utica
Carthage - Northern Africa
involved in 3 wars with the Romans. Founded by colonists from Tyre
The line at which Egyptian civilization stopped - Southern Palestine around the dead sea
Kadesh
Any member of ancient Northern Semetic people that were ancestors of the Jews.
Entered Canaan (Palestine)
Hebrews
1900 - 1500 leads Jews
Led Jews North and West to Canaan.
Abraham
Most notable for parting the Red Sea so that the Levites may pass through and back to the land of Canaan.
Parents placed him in reed basket down the Nile river.
Burning bush
Moses
Jewish deities:
Abraham
Yahweh
Modern day Jehova.
aka Israel god.
Commissioned Moses to deliver the Hebrews from Egypt.
Yahweh
Led to Egypt and settles in the delta region called Goshen.
Enslaved by the Egyptians.
Levite tribe
1015 - 1000 Israel king
Selected by Samuel and other priests
could not completely defeat the Philistines
Saul
992 - 960 Israel king
Leads into golden age
Womanizer
David
960 - 935 - Jewish History
Son of David - gets credit for Golden Age.
Built temples for the god of Israel
Solomon
935 - Tribes begin to fight. Palestine divides into 12 tribes.
10 Israel tribes - Northern Palestine - unwilling to accept son of Solomon

2 Judah tribes - Southern palestine - Solomon's son retained leadership over southern part. became kingdom of Judah
Ancient name for Syria
Land locked - under the arch of the Euphrates river
Aramaeans
Capital of Syria.
Proficient in land trading or caravan
Damascus
Language of Aramaeans, commong lang of ancient near east, language of christ and decipals.
Aramaic
Northern Mesopotamia.
Peacefull - but became aggressive & very mean.
Assyria
Left a good set of historical records to show where Assyria is at in histries and accomplishments.
Ashurnazirpa 885 - 860
Tries to capture Damascus but failed.
Takes Cilicia
Gained pass tauras Mtns - supply metals for trade.
Shalmaneser - 845 - 825
Takes Damascus in 732.
Strongest military king in Assyria.
Equipped army men with fine armor.
troops organized into small units
Tiglath-Pileser - 745 - 725
Agricultural deity of Canaanites. Jewish didn't really believe in this, but there were successful at agriculture.
Baal
Means "True King"
Israel to be made a province od Assyria.
Defeat Egypt - loosly controls Assyria.
Sargon II 720 - 705
Built the city of Nineveh.
Murdered by son - older son - not Esarhaddon.
Sennacherib 705 - 680
May have been estabished as capital to replace Kalakh.
Ninevah
Last of the major kings of Assyria.
Best educated and last effective.
Spun off Egypt from his rule - too expensive and hard to maintain under his rule.
Ashurbanipal 670 - 630
After the end of the Assyrian Empire - 4 kingdoms were able to exist independently.
1. Neo-Babylonian
2. Median
3. Lydian
4. Sarte
539 BC. Chaldeans populate this region
1 of 4 independent kingdoms
Neo-Babylonia
Most common type of captivity - given direction by Nebuchadnezzar.
Babylonia Captivity
Ruler of 1 of 4 independent kingdoms
Put pressure on Assyria about 615, Tried to capture Assyrian capital cities and failed.
Nabopolassar
1st of major leaders of the Neo-Babolynian dynasty.
Attacks Judah and Israel and takes over.
Nebuchadnezzar - 600
Nebuchadnezzar gives ? chief administrator of Judah and Israel
Zedekiah
3 main rulers of the new Neo-Babylonian kingdom
Nabopolassar
Nebuchadnezzer
Nabonius
Ruler of Neo-Babylonia. Encourages Persians to strike against the Median empire.
Nabonius
2 of 4 new independent kingdoms
550 BC,
Largest of the 4 kingdoms
Median
Most significant ruler of Median dynasty.
Wanted to move against Assyria and failed.
Cyaxares
2 cities of the Median world
Ecbatana
susa
3 of 4 independent kingdoms
Ruler - King with the Midas Touch
Capital city
Lydian
King Crolsus
Sardis
4 of 4 independent kingdoms
525 Egyptian
Capital city?
Major ruler?
Sarte
Sais - capital city
Amasis - ruler
Misc about Assyrian people
As mean as could be but still comply
Tried to preserve knowledge in Mesopotamia
Show a greater amt of emotion in their art. will use precious metals and stones in their art.
Poppys grown for Opium and cotton.
3 Persian rulers that take over the Assyrian empire
1. Cyrus
2. Cambyses
3. Darius I
559 - 530 BC
Led by ? - Persians and Medes attack and bring down Assyrian empire.
will conquer 3 of 4 kingdoms before his death.
1. Median 550
2. Lydian 547
3. Neo-Babylonia & Nebonius 539
(Sarte still free)
Cyrus
530 - 524 BC - short rein
Son of Cyrus
Introduces Monotheism
Conquers Sarte in 525 after the death of its ruler Amasis. This ruler does not make it back home.
Cambyses
522 - 486 BC
Chief organizer of the Persian Empire
cousin of Cambyses
will have trouble with the Russian tribe (Scythians)
Darius I
new Persian religion from Cambysis
500 - 0
Zoroastrianism
Profeit of Zoroastrianism.
Complete Theologin, Trying to irradicate polytheism.
Zroaster
Good god within the Persian empire
Embodies principle - life, goodness,
people believed good would reward good and bad would be judges and punished.
Ahura - Mazda
Bad - evil deity within Zoroaster
Ahriman
Bible of Religion
Sacred book of Zoroastrianism religion
Avesta
Priests of Persia
1. Mitrha - son deity
2. Magi - Took advantage of Cambyses absence. Didn't accept movement of monotheism.
Eclectic describes what?
persians borrow from past cultures - pulled the best ideas.
Cunae writing
King of Persia is known as:
Rules by divine right.
Great King of Kings
The Great King of Kings has an empire that is divided how?
Into 30 Satrapes (regions)
each has 1 Satrap in charge (like a governer).
This system worked well for the Persians
Fort Knox of the Persian Wols.
held the riches of the Persians
Just above the Persian gulf
Massive good army, smaller fighting units.
Good Roads
Persepolis
The persians belief of Religion - how to manage people?
Didn't try to sell religion based on 1 deity. Moderation of religion belief makes it easier to control people.