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77 Cards in this Set

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Polis
8th BC
emerged, city state, political and social urban center (Athens, early Rome)
Homer
8th BC
Greek epic poet, wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey
Hoplites
7th BC
changed warfare, no heroes, just lots of men, phalanx formation
Lycurgus
7th BC
Spartan leader, militarized the society, prohibited coinage
Cleisthenes
6th BC
Athenian archon, reformed elections, introduced ostracism
Cincinnatus
5th BC
Roman Consul, appointed dictator for 6 months to defeat the Aequi
Thucydides
5th BC
Greek historian, wrote on war between Athens and Sparta
Peloponnesian War
5th BC
between Athens(sea) and Sparta(land) and their allies
Socrates
5th BC
Athenian philosopher, Plato's teacher, reexamine all assumptions
Sophocles
5th BC
Athenian, wrote Oedipus at Colonus and Greek tragedies
Pericles
5th BC
Athenian leader, paid day's wages for assembly participants
Plato
4th BC
Athenian philosopher, wrote "Republic", said smart guardians should rule
Alexander the Great
4th BC
king of Macedonia, conquered known world, founded Alexandria
Aristotle
4th BC
Athenian philosopher, Plato's student, happiness through virtue
Epicurus
4th BC
Greek philosopher, pleasure and serenity of the mind are best good
Stoicism
3rd BC
philosophy, founded by Zeno(Athenian), relative evil, no control
Zeno
3rd BC
Athenian, founded Stoicism, materialist, lack of control in the world
Hannibal
3rd BC
Carthaginian general, invaded Italy, defeated at Zama by Scipio
Punic Wars
3rd BC
Rome vs. Carthage, 3 wars, Rome won, destroyed city of Carthage in 146
Gracchus Brothers
2nd BC
Roman tribunes, land law restricts large holdings
Polybius
2nd BC
Greek hisotrian, national cycles of growth/decay, liked Rome (balance)
Pompey
1st BC
Roman general, conquered Syria and Palestine, defeated by Caesar
Julius Caesar
1st BC
marched on Rome, became dictator, conquered Gual, Julian calendar
Augustus
1st BC
First roman emperor, public services, tax/monetary reform
Cicero
1st BC
influential Roman stoic, orator, and writer
Marius
1st BC
Roman general, eliminated property requirement for the army
Sulla
1st BC
Roman general, appointed dictator(unlimited term), retired 3 yrs later
Tacitus
1st AD
Historian, wrote "Agricola" and "Germania", moral indictments of Roman society
Tiberius
1st AD
Roman emperor, skilled administrator, problems with Senate, angered elite
Nero
1st AD
Roman emperor, popular with masses, built "Golden House" and baths
Hadrian
2nd AD
Roman emperor, built wall in Northern Britain, defensive policy
Neoplatinism
3rd AD
philosophy, founded by Plotinus, withdrawal from world, mysticism
Asceticism
3rd AD
major Neoplatonic doctrine, emancipate soul, subjugate body
Augustine
4th AD
Bishop of Hippo, Christian intellect, human evils and good afterlife, soul vs. flesh
Constantine
4th AD
Roman emperor, Christian, instituted hereditary succession
St. Benedict
6th AD
founded Benedictine monks, Latin rule, poverty, chastity, etc.
Justinian
6th AD
eastern Roman emperor, codified Roman law, tried recovering the west
Clovis
6th AD
established Frankish royal dynasty(Merovingian), Catholic king
Hegira/Hijrah
7th AD
Muslim migration with Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib(Medina)
Muhammad
7th AD
founded Islam, moved with followers to Yathrib(Medina) in the Hijrah/Hegira
Charles Martel
8th AD
Frankish king, consolidated Frankish state, beat Muslims at Tours
Charlemagne
9th AD Frankish king, conquered Saxons and converted them, Roman emperor
Manorialism
9th AD
decentralized government, self-sufficient manors w/surrounding lands
Cluny
10th AD
Benedictine house, direct papal protection, network of subordinate houses
Battle of Hastings
11th AD
(1066) William's Normans defeated King Harold's English
Gregory VII
11th AD
Pope, called on laity to help discipline their priests
Henry IV
11th AD
Holy Roman emperor, fought Saxons, finally abased himself to the Pope
Investiture Controversy
11th AD
can a layman (Henry IV) appoint bishops/abbots?
Henry II
12th AD king of England, instituted grand juries, trial juries, procedures
Richard I
12th AD
"Lionheart", helped lead the 3rd crusade, able general
St. Thomas Becket
12th AD Archbishop of Canterbury, killed by Henry II's knights
Frederick Barbarossa
12th AD
Holy Roman Emperor, let German princes rule freely
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
12th AD
Cistercian preacher/monk, asceticism
St. Thomas Aquinas
13th AD French Dominican, defended faith through reason
Philip IV
13th AD French king, centralized govt, Estates General, reduced papal power
Dominicans
13th AD
monastic order, fight heresy and convert Jews/Muslims
Dante
13th AD
wrote Divine Comedy, expelled from Florence
Boniface VIII
13th AD pope, end of papal monarchy, many disputes with kings
St. Francis of Assisi
13th AD
rich Italian, gave away everything, founded Franciscans
Frederick II
13th AD
Holy Roman Emperor, recovered Sicily and Jerusalem
Innocent III
13th AD
Pope, summoned 4th crusade, which failed miserably
Magna Carta
13th AD
document limited royal power in taxes, trials and law
John I
13th AD
English king, forced by barons to sign Magna Carta
St. Louis IX
13th AD
French king, well loved, brought peace and prosperity to France
Hundred Years War
14th AD
between France and England, succession of French throne
Estates General
14th AD
French assembly, represented clergy, nobility and populace
Crecy
14th AD
Hundredy Years' War battle in 1346, outnumbered English beat French
Black Death
14th AD
combined bubonic and pneumonic plagues, reduced populations
Boccaccio
14th AD
realist, wrote vernacular prose on love, sex, humor, ie people
Edward III
14th AD
English king during successful campaigns in France in 100 Years War
Chaucer
14th AD
English writer, vernacular literature, Caterbury Tales, human comedy
Giotto
14th AD
Florentine naturalist painter, first to use perspective
Petrarch
14th AD
Italian Renaissance humaniist writer, sonnets, committed Catholic
Humanism
15th AD
Italian Renaissance ideal, study of Latin/Greek language/literature
Leonardo Bruni
15th AD
civic humanist, writes on importance of Latin and Greek studies
Masaccio
15th AD
Italian painter, begain perspective/depth, "imitate nature"
Cosimo de Medici
15th AD
founded Platonic Academy in Florence