Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
emperor of rome from 37-41 AD and in four short years established a reputation for strange behavior which has endured for 20 centuries
Battle of Chalons
in 451, a Roman coalition led by General Flavius Aetius and the King Attila. This battle was the last major military operation of the Western Roman Empire and hte apex of the career of Flavius Aetius
Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737. Of obscure origin, they rose to immense wealth as merchants and bankers, became affiliated through marriage with the major houses of Europe, and, besides acquiring (1569) the title grand duke of Tuscany, produced three popes , two queens of France , and several cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church.
Nero Claudius Caesar (37-68) was the last of the Julio-Claudian line of Roman emperors. His erratic personal and public life caused numerous revoltsand uprisings and set the scene for the ascension of the military emperors.
Pope Leo I
He waged a firm campaign against schism and heresy.
Holy Sepulcher
church in Jerusalem, officially the Church of the Resurrection. It is in the east central part of the Christian quarter, on the supposed site of Jesus' tomb.
The Italian author and statesman __________ (1469-1527) is best known for "The Prince", in which he enunciated his political philosophy.
King Baldwin
was one of the leaders of the First Crusade, who became the first Count of Edessa and then the second ruler and first titled King of Jerusalem. He was the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, who was the first ruler of the crusader state of Jerusalem, although he refused the title of 'king' which ________ accepted.
Francesco Petrarch
The Italian poet ______(1304-1374) is best known for the Iyric poetry of his "Canzoniere" and is considered one of the greatest love poets of world literature. A scholar of classical antiquity, he was the founder of humanism.
Roman Emperor. After his sister tried to have him killed (182), he executed the senators involved and began ruling capriciously. His brutality stirred unrest that ended years of Roman stability and prosperity
An ancient city of Mesopotamia on the site of present-day Urfa in southeast Turkey. A major Christian center after the third century A.D., it was conquered by the Arabs in 639 and was captured by Crusaders in 1097.
Great Schism
division in the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. There was no question of faith or practice involved; the schism was a matter of persons and politics
a Roman emperor. He established the characteristic form of government for the later empire, the Dominate.
Donation of Pepin
in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended papal temporal rule beyond the traditional diocese and duchy of Rome.
Martin Luther
The German reformer ________ (1483-1546) was the first and greatest figure in the 16th-century Reformation. A composer of commentaries on Scripture, theology, and ecclesiastical abuses, a hymnologist, and a preacher, from his own time to the present he has been a symbol of Protestantism.
mperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
the Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800.
Raymond du Puy
French knight and was Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from 1121?-1160.
Diet of Worms
in 1521, where Martin Luther defended the principles of the Reformation
any system of government where power is divided between four individuals but is rarely used. The most famous _________ is that instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 and lasted until c. 313.
Pope Leo III
Pope (795–816) who crowned Charlemagne emperor (800).
Eleanor of Aquitaine
(ca. 1122-1204) was queen of France from 1137 to 1152 and queen of England from 1154 to 1204. Her second marriage, which brought southwestern France to the English king, affected the relations of France and England for almost 300 years.
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) was king of England from 1509 to 1547. As a consequence of the Pope's refusal to nullify his first marriage, _____ withdrew from the Roman Church and created the Church of England.
Edict of Toleration
a declaration made by a government or ruler and states that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions
the site of Charlemagne's great palace
Kurdish ruler of Egypt and Syria, is known in the West for his opposition to the forces of the Third Crusade and for his capture of Jerusalem.
Edict of Milan
declared that the Roman Empire would be neutral with regard to religious worship, officially removing all obstacles to the practice of Christianity and other religions.
Carolingian Renaissance
A revival of classical art and architecture in parts of northern and western Europe begun under Charlemagne and lasting into the 10th century.
Battle of Hattin
battle on July 4, 1187, in N Palestine, where Saladin's Muslim forces defeated the Christian armies of Guy de Lusignan
Cult of Isis
he cult of Isis rose to prominence in the Hellenistic world, beginning in the last centuries BC, until it was eventually banned by the Christians in the 6th century. Despite the Isis mystery cult's growing popularity, there is evidence to suggest that the Isis mysteries were not altogether welcomed by the ruling classes in Rome. Her rites were considered by the princeps Augustus to be "pornographic" and capable of destroying the Roman moral fibre.
Treaty of Verdun
t marked a first stage in the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire and a step toward the formation of the modern countries of western Europe.
Cult of Mithras
religious cult that worshiped Mithras, especially popular among the Roman military and a strong rival to Christianity during the late Roman Empire.
Barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain. Defeated at the battle of Lechfeld in ad 955, they settled down in Hungary and established a civilized Christian kingdom which survived into modern times.
Attila the Hun
Attila (died 453) was a chieftain who brought the Huns to their greatest strength and who posed a grave threat to the Roman Empire.
An organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews
brother of attila
Joan of Arc
The French national heroine _________ (c. 1412-1431) led a troop of French soldiers and served as a temporary focus of French resistance to English occupation in the last phase of the Hundred Years War.
Muhammad is the central prophet of the Islamic faith.
Henry V
Henry V (1387-1422) was king of England from 1413 to 1422. His reign marked the high point in English attempts to conquer France. While the long-term effects of his reign were minimal, Henry V became a folk hero in English literature.