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151 Cards in this Set

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totalitarianism
all-embracing control over the individual and society that could only be achieved in an age of modern ideology, technology, and bureaucracy. More completely established in Germany and Soviet Union
Whites
anti-communist group in Russia who combined opinions from moderate socialist to reactionary. Received support from foreign governments, then they finally had their own revolution
Reds
communist group in Russia
War communism
policy to Russian people that dealt with the plummeting agricultural and economic production, rampant inflation, and desperate hunger in the cities
NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP)
this term described the "state socialism" that lasted from 1921 until 1928 in Russia, during which much of the economy was allowed to return to private enterprise
Cheka
a ruthless secret police organiation that executed some 200,000 people
"man of steel"
crude and vulgar, toughened by the revolutionary underground and tsarist prisons and by the roughest aspects of Russian life
Five-Year Plan
decreed by Stalin, the emphasis lay on heavy industry: the construction of railroads, power plants, steel mills, and military hardware. Production of consumer goods was cut to the minimum, and all small-scale private trading came to an end. This had disastrous results for the standard of living.
Collectivization
the pooling of farmland, animals, and equipment to achieve efficient, large-scale production
Socialist realism
a style in literature that was expected to describe the world as the aprty saw it or hoped to shape it
Purges
used to rid the party of weaklings
Fascism
a response to a postwar society afflicted with spiritual disintegration, economic dislocation, political instability, and thwarted nationalist hopes. An exression of fear that the Bolshevik Revolution would spread westward. An expression of hostility to democratic values and a reaction to the failure of liberal institutions to solve the problems of modern industrial society.
Mussolini
of Italy, was proud, quarrelsome, violent, and resentful of the humiliation he suffered. Organized the Fascist party to realize his immense will to power
LATERAN ACCORDS
this agreement between Mussolini and the Pope created the basis for largely good relations between the Vatican and Mussolini's Italy throughout the 1930's
Weimar Republic
showed the weaknesses of the multiparty system, many Germans sought the destruction of this
Adolf Hitler
a loner, often given to brooding and self-pity. Leader of the Nazi Paraty
Beer Hall Putsch
an attempt by Hitler to seize power in Munich, as a prelude to toppling the republic
Mein Kampf
a rambling and turgid work which contained the essence of his worldview
ARYAN
this term described the ideal racial figure that Hitler held up as the model that should populate Germany.
Chancellor
rule by the president instead of Parliament; which meant that Germany had already taken a giant step away from parliamentary government in the direction of authoritarianism
Fuehrer
the leader in the 3rd Reich. Hitler was this leader that embodied and expressed the real will of the German people, commanded the supreme loyalty of the nation, and held omnipotent
"new man"
shaping the German nation a 'new man' committed to Hiter, race, and Volk
Joseph Goebbels
headed The Ministry of Popular Enlightenment, and controlled the press, book publishing, the radio, the theater, and the cinema
Nuremburg
the location of giant monster rallies that were symbolic of the Nazi regime. Scores of thousands roared, marched, and worshiped at their leader's feet. People celebrated Hitlers achievements and demonstrated their loyalty to their savior
Heinrich Himmler
a fanaticl believer in Hitler's racial theories. Was involved in he SS, a group that had been organized to protect Hitler and other party leaders and to stand guard at party meetings
KRISTALLNACHT
this event, in which many Jews were killed or imprisoned and much Jewish property was destroyed, characterized the anti-Semitism thrust of the Nazi state in Germany
CHARLES MAURRAS
This French political laeder was strongly anti-Semitic and opposed individualism
Francisco Franco
stationed in Spanish Morocco and led a revolt against the Spanish Republic. Supported by army leaders, church, monarchists, landlords, industrialists, and the Falange, a newly formed fascist party.
Anschluss
meaning "union". Many Austrians believed that only Anschluss with Germany could solve Austria's problems
Popular Front
formed out of the fear of growing fascist strength at home and in Italy and Germany. Led by Blum, it instituted more reforms that any other ministry in the history of the Third Republic
Which of the following is true of the terror used by totalitarian regimes?
It is both physical and psychological
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the fascist "style"?
a preoccupation with the past
What was the primary purpose of Stalin's forced industrialization program?
to make the Soviet Union better able to defend itself in the next war
Which of the following did NOT contribute to the political weaknesses of the Weimer Republic?
the determination of the Nazis
Which of the following was NOT one of Hitler's key worldview ideas?
national republicanism
Erich Maria Remarque
dealth with the horrors of the war and their impact in ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT
Oswald Spengler
wrote THE DECLINE OF THE WEST which was the most influential expression of pessimism
Franz Kafka
grasped the dilemma of the modern age in his major novels, THE TRIAL and THE CASTLE. Wrote about the senselessness of life
Thomas Mann
this German writer attacked fascism in his writings and, in THE MAGIC MOUNTAIN, lamented the poor condition of European civilization
D.H. Lawrence
a son of an illiterate British coal miner, was saddened and angered by the consequences of industrial society: the deterioration of nature, tedious work divorced from personal satisfactions, and a life-denying quest for wealth and possessions
Dada
a movement founded by Zurich artists and writers to express their revulsion against the war and the civilization that spawned it. Pointless art movement
Arthur Koestler
wrote DARKNESS AT NOON, which explored the attitudes of the Old Bolsheviks who were imprisoned, tortured, and excuted by Stalin. Communist
Charlie Chaplin
this silent film actor and director used his medium to criticize modern industrialism and the fascist phenomenon
Karl Barth
Swiss-German Protestant theologian who called for a reaffirmation of the Christ who inspires faith, the uniqueness of Christianity, and the spiritual power of divine revelation. Christianity
Arnold Toynbee
British historian who published the first three volumes of his monumental work A STUDY OF HISTORY in which he tried to account fo the rise, growth, and breakdown and disintegration of civilization
Jose Ortega y Gasset
this author of THE REVOLT OF THE MASSES argued that the "mass man" mentality was endangering Western Civilization
Erich Fromm
wrote ESCAPE FROM FREEDOM which explained the triumph of Nazism within the wider context of European history
George Orwell
this British novelist and political journalist strongly condemned totalitarianism in his books ANIMAL FARM and 1984
Existentialism
what route should people take in a world where old values and certainties had dissolved, where univeral truth was rejected and God's existence denied? How could people cope in a society where they were menaced by technology, manipulated by impersonal bureaucracies and overwhelmed by feelings of anxiety? If the universe is devoid of any overarching meaning, what meaning could one give to one's own life?
Soren Kierkegaard
Danish religious philospher and Lutheran pastor who held that self-realization as a human being comes when the individual takes full responsibility for his or her life? Christian
Martin Heidegger
this existentialist author and Nazi sympathizer wrote, among other things BEING AND TIME
Jean Paul Sartres
leading French existentialist who said that their confrontation with terror and torture taught them "to take evil seriously"
Albert Camus
reared and educated in French-ruled Algeria, gained an instant reputation in 1942 with the publication of THE STRANGER a short novel and THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS, a philosophical essay
historicists
????????
Which of the following is the best definition of the Modern Predicament?
We live in a meaningless world, but we still hope to find meaning in it.
Which of the following thinkers argued that Western Civilization was dying after World War I?
Oswald Spengler
Which of these best describes the artistic movement known as the Dada?
it reflected the strong reaction among artists against reason and civilization
Which of the following is a basic principle of existentialism?
our existence may be the only certain reality
Barth and Toynbee were two thinkers who turned to which of the following in response to the Modern Predicament?
Christianity
Kellogg-Briand Pact
was signed by most nations in 1926 renouncing the war; ordinary people welcomed the pact as the dawning of a new era of peace, but because it contained no clauses for its enforcement, the agreement fostered only the illusion of peace
Maginot Line
immense fortifications that France built to protect its borders from a German invasion, but it lacked a mobile striking force that could punish an aggressive Germany
the invasion of Ethiopia
breakdown of peace when Mussolini invaded in 1935, seeking colonial expansion and revenge for the defeat that the African kingdom had inflicted on Italian troops in 1896
remilitarization of the Rhineland
violated both the Versailles treaty and the Locarno Pact and threatened to provoke French invasion but Hitler gambled that France and Britain would take no action
Spanish Civil War
a victory for fascism – Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy aided Franco – the Soviet Union supplied the Spanish republic; the republic fell
Neville Chamberlain
this prime minister of Great Britain represented the British at the Munich Conference where the policy of appeasement led to the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia by Hitler's Germany
Munich Conference
where Czechoslovakia’s fate was decided – attended by Chamberlain, Hitler, Mussolini, and Prime Minister Edouard Dalidier of France
Pact of Steel
Hitler and Mussolini promised mutual aid in the even of war
Nazi-Soviet Pact
was the green light for an invasion of Poland
blitzkrieg
“lightning war” – in less than a month, the Nazis had vanquished Poland
Dunkirk
crisis in which a desperate effort is the only alternative to defeat
Winston Churchill
opposed appeasement and replaced Chamberlain as British prime minister – had the capacity to stir and lead his people in the struggle against Nazism
Luftwaffe
this was the name of Nazi Germany's air force
Operation Barbarossa
This was the Nazi code name for the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
The New Order
the rule Hitler and his henchmen imposed on his vast empire, for by 1942 Germany ruled virtually all of Europe
SS
elite of master race who ran the extermination camps – regarded themselves as idealists who were writing a glorious chapter in the history of Germany – murdered with immense dedication
Auschwitz
between 1.1 million and 1.5 million people died in Auschwitz but was more than a murder factory, it also provided the German industrial giant with slave laborers
Hans and Sophie Scholl
siblings who were executed by the Nazis for high treason – belonged to the White Rose, a small group of idealistic students at the University of Munich who urged passive resistance to the national Socialist regime – the group hoped that if more Germans were aware of the Nazi regime’s inhumane character they would withdraw their loyalty
Tito
He led the Yugoslav resistance army which tied down a large German army
Pearl Harbor
: Japanese struck with carrier-based planes at this harbor in Hawaii – taken by surprise, Americans suffered a total defeat
Midway
cost Japan the initiative – one of the three decisive battles that reversed the tide of war
Stalingrad
was an epic struggle in which Russian soldiers and civilians contested for every building and street of the city
El Alamein
battle in which the British Eighth Army stopped Hitler
Hiroshima
the United States dropped an atomic bomb here, killing more than seventy-eight thousand people and demolishing 60 percent of the city
Which of the following correctly describes the legacy of World War I?
Many people in Britain and France were more interested in peace than in war
Why was the remilitarization of the Rhineland significant?
It showed Hitler that he could violate the Treaty of Versailles without fear
Why did Germany military forces mobilize in August 1938?
they were threatening Czechoslovakia
Why did France fall so quickly to the German blitzkrieg?
they misunderstood the pace and psyhchology of modern warfare
How was the Holocaust a logical outcome of 20th century developments?
It demonstrated the fearful combination of irrationalism and fanaticism
United Nations
formed when the U.S. rallied the victorious Allies in 1945, including the Soviet Union, to a farsighted political initiative
Univeral Declaration of Human Rights
announced that the “recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world”
the Cold War
stemmed from the divergent historical experiences and the incompatible political ambitions of the U.S. and the Soviet Union
Truman Doctrine
the American President announced this policy in 1947; it was based on the idea of containment
Marshall Plan
an impressive program of economic aid, formally called the European Recovery Program – helped the U.S. to gain economically strong allies and trading partners
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization – linked the armed forces of the U.S., Canada, Portugal, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Italy, Britain, France, and the Benelux countries
ICBMs
InterContinental Ballistic Missiles created during the arms race by the Soviet Union
SALT
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks – used to agree to a temporary limit on offensive strategic weapons by the U.N
Vietnam War
very unpopular war – North Vietnam was Communist so U.S. sided with South Vietnam
European Economic Community
EEC – also known as the Common Market, it created a free market among the member states and sought to improve living conditions within them
Margaret Thatcher
This was the first British woman prime minister who dominated British politics for a decade as the leader of the Conservative party
Charles de Gaulle
general who restored order and established the Fifth Republic with a strong executive authority
Konrad Adenauer
: chancellor and architect of the new West Germany – he sought to restore respect for Germany in cooperation with the leading states of Western Europe and the U.S.
Willy Brandt
chancellor who took the initiative for an “opening toward the East,” contriburing to a temporary relaxation of tensions between the superpowers
"people's democracies"
all countries in eastern and southeastern Europe, as well as eastern Germany under Soviet control
Nikita Krushchev
this man followed Stalin as the leader of the Soviet Union
Leonid Brezhnev
rose to the fore of the group of leaders who succeeded Khrushchev – under his leadership, the government of the USSR turned from a personal dictatorship into an oligarchy
detente
this term described the limitied cooperation between the US and the USSR in the 1970s
Mikhail Gorbachev
presided over his country’s collapse – self-confident and articulate, he strove to integrate his country into the main currents of modern life through a dramatic retreat from communist theory and practice
perestroika
restructuring
glasnost
openness
decolonization
supported by the superpowers and the ideals of the UN – they eventually abolished all overseas empires and propelled their formed subjects into independent statehood
Joseph Mobutu
this longtime leader of Zaire was both pro-western and corrupt
Which of the following was one of the major events that contributed to the development of the Cold War?
the falling of the Iron Curtain after WWII
Which of the following best defines the Cold War?
it was an ideological conflict between the US and the USSR
Which of the following best describes the postwar movement toward a "New Europe"?
the movement toward integration and economic cooperation
Which of the following Soviet leaders' era was most characterized by dissent and economic stagnation?
Brezhnev
Which of the following has been one of the advantages of decolonization?
new nations have emerged, able to make their own decisions
Lech Walsea
this man founded Poland's Solidarity movement and later became the country's president
Solidarity
the labor union formed by Walsea. The Polish government briefly recognized the union, despite threats of Soviet intervention. It persisted underground until legalized in 1989. It led a noncommunist government in Poland for 10 years.
Berlin Wall
breached when almost a million antigovernment demonstrators crammed the streets of East Berlin and the Communist government resigned.
Nicolae Ceausescu
This Romanian dictator was executed during the 1989 revolutions in Eastern Europe
detente
this term described the limitied cooperation between the US and the USSR in the 1970s
Mikhail Gorbachev
presided over his country’s collapse – self-confident and articulate, he strove to integrate his country into the main currents of modern life through a dramatic retreat from communist theory and practice
perestroika
restructuring
glasnost
openness
decolonization
supported by the superpowers and the ideals of the UN – they eventually abolished all overseas empires and propelled their formed subjects into independent statehood
Joseph Mobutu
this longtime leader of Zaire was both pro-western and corrupt
Which of the following was one of the major events that contributed to the development of the Cold War?
the falling of the Iron Curtain after WWII
Which of the following best defines the Cold War?
it was an ideological conflict between the US and the USSR
Which of the following best describes the postwar movement toward a "New Europe"?
the movement toward integration and economic cooperation
Which of the following Soviet leaders' era was most characterized by dissent and economic stagnation?
Brezhnev
Which of the following has been one of the advantages of decolonization?
new nations have emerged, able to make their own decisions
Lech Walsea
this man founded Poland's Solidarity movement and later became the country's president
Solidarity
the labor union formed by Walsea. The Polish government briefly recognized the union, despite threats of Soviet intervention. It persisted underground until legalized in 1989. It led a noncommunist government in Poland for 10 years.
Berlin Wall
breached when almost a million antigovernment demonstrators crammed the streets of East Berlin and the Communist government resigned.
Nicolae Ceausescu
This Romanian dictator was executed during the 1989 revolutions in Eastern Europe
Vaclav Havel
Czech playwright and president who joined a theater group in Prague and wrote plays that were satires and parables of life under totalitarianism. They were then banned by the Communist government from performance or publication in Czechoslovakia
Velvet Revolution
led by Havel, was a crusade against the Czech Communist government
Boris Yeltsin
This president of the Russian republic stood up to the leaders of the coup against Gorbachev in 1991 and helped lead Russia toward democratic government
shock therapy
a plan of Yeltin’s; the transfer of state firms to private ownership. This proved a disaster.
Vladimir Putin
Yeltsin’s chosen successor who started out as his prime minister and reopened the war in Chechnya. He later became president of Russia.
Bosnia
country that tried to secede. Ethnic hatred exploded and centered in Bosnia. It’s major ethnic groups – 43% Muslim, 17% Catholic Croat, and 31% Orthodox Serb were scattered in multiethnic communities.
Slobodan Milosevic
Yugoslav president who was a Serb nationalist who refused to give up control and unleashed the Serb army, augmented by Bosnian Serbs, on the two countries
European Union
organization that is shaping Europe into a unified political and economic force, with the help of a common monetary unit, the euro, which competes with the U.S. dollar as a currency for worldwide use.
Tony Blair
This british poltiical leader heads the Labour Party and is currently British Prime Minister
Jacques Chiras
a moderate conservative, a prime minister of France. Succeeded Mitterrand as president and later named a socialist, Lionel Jospin to head the government
Al Qaeda
This international terrorist network of militant Muslims has been responsible for a number of recent bombings in recent years as well as the Sept. 11 attacks in New York and Washington
Which of the following best describes the events that occurred in Eastern Europe in 1989?
democratic movements developed and new governments formed without Soviet interference
Which of the following is one of th ekey issues facing the European Union?
can true union be achieved among all the member nations?
Which of the following is one of the major questions that faces Eastern Europe toay?
Will the region be able to develop stable democratic governments?
Which of the following is a cause for optimism as we look to the future?
medical care continues to improve
Which of the following is a reason to be pessimistic about the future?
international terrorism threatens the lives of people all over the world