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79 Cards in this Set

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patron
financial supporter
humanism
intellectual movement that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues
perspective
artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect
Lorenzo de'Medici
A clever poltician, a patron to the arts, and a poet. Known as the Manificent
Francesco Petrarch
A humanist who hunted down and assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts.He also wrote Sonnets to Laura
Leonardo da Vinci
Most known for his Mona Lisa.
Michelangelo
A sculptor,engineer, painter, architect, and poet. Known for his sculptures Pieta and David.
Raphael
Paintings blended Christian and classical styles. One of his most known works is the School of Athens.
Sofonisba Anguissola
An Italian Noblewoman who was a portrait painter. one of her works, The artist's sisters playing chess, earned her an invitation to become court painter to King Philip II of Spain.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Created a magnificent dome for the cathedral in Florence, which he modeled on the dome of the Parthenon in Rome.
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote The Book of the Coutier.
Niccolo Machiavelli
served as a diplomat; wrote the Prince, which was a guide to rulers onhow to gain and maintain power.
Johann Gutenberg
printed a complete edition of the bible using metal type.
Bruegal
painted peasant life.
indulgence
a pardon for sins commited during a persons lifetime
recant
to give up ones views
predestination
the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation
Theocracy
government run by church leaders.
Protestant Reformation
Christians grew impatient with the corruption of the clergy and the worldliness of the Church, people called for reform.
Martin Luther
German monk and professor of theology. Outraged with the corruption and Worldliness of the Church. Wrote the 95 Thesis, a list of arguments against indulgences.
Peace of Augsburg
Allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in their lands.
John Calvin
Priest and a lawyer, published the Institutes of the Christian Religion. Believed that salvation was gained through faith alone. Preached Predestination. Also set up a theocracy.
annul
cancel
ghetto
Part of the city where Jews lived, in Venice
Henry VIII
Had a series of laws passed which took the English Church from the pope's control and placed it under Henry's rule.
Mary Tudor
Tried to make England Catholic, but failed. Many protestants died at the stake during her rule.
Elizabeth I
Restored unity to England and made it Protestant
Catholic Reformation
Led by Pope Paul III who set out to revive the moral of the Church and roll back the Protestant tide.
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed traditional Catholic views. Also took steps to end abuses in the Church.
Inquisition
church court set up to root out heresies during the middle ages
absolute monarch
a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people
Divine Right
belief that authority to rule came directly from God
Hapsburgs
Austrian Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands.
intendant
royal officials who collected taxes
balance of power
a distribution of military and economic power that would prevent any one nation from dominating Europe.
Limited monarchy
a government in which a constitution of legislative body limits the monarch's powers.
Habeas Corpus
no person could be held inprison without first being charged with a specific crime.
Petition of Right
Prohibited the king from raising taxes without the consent of Parliament or imprisioning anyone without just cause.
Bill of Rights
ensured the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.
Frederick the Great
The king of Prussia; named for his brilliant use of his army.Seized mineral-rich Silesia from Austria.
Maria Theresa
The first Woman to Rule Hapsburg lands in her own name.
Peace of Westphalia
Under these terms France gained territory on its Spanish and German frontiers. Also ended the Thirty Years' War
Seven Years' War
Was fought in Europe, India, and North America.
Thirty Yars' War
began as a local conflict in Bohemia. The War had both political and religous causes. Conflicts started when Ferdinand of Bohemia sought to suppress Protestants and to assert royal power over local nobles.
Peter the Great
Curious about the advanced Western technology. Brought all Russians under his control, including the Russian Orthodox Church. Forced boyars to serve the state in civilian or military jobs. Under him serfdom spread, education improved, he simplified the Russian alphabet, set up academies for the study of math, science and engineering. Improved waterways and canals.
St.Petersburg
the great symbol of Peter's desire to forge a modern Russia.
Catherine The Great
Reorganized the provincial government, codified laws, and began state-sponsored education for boys and girls. Encouraged French language and customs. Granted Russian nobles important rights, such as exemption from taxes. She achieved a warm-water port on the black sea. She also seized territory from Poland.
What Countries Partitioned Poland? How many times was it partitioned?
Russia, Austria, and Prussia; three times
Bourgeoisie
middle class
emigre
nobles, clergy, and others who had fled revolutionary France.
Sans-culottes
working class men and women
deficit spending
a government spending more money than it takes in.
ancien regime
old order
First Estate
consisted of Nuns,monks, and priests
Second Estate
consisted of Nobles
Third Estate
consisted mostly of peasants
cahiers
notebooks
nationalism
an agressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
Directory
period of reaction against extremism
Paris Commune
a radical group, which could mobilize whole neighborhoods for protests or violent action to futher the revolution.
The Great Fear
Time of fear and Panic. Peasants attacked homes of Nobles, burned old manor records, and stole grain from storehouses.
The Constitution of 1791
set up a limited monarchy in place of the absolute monarchy.
Robespierre
A lawyer and a politician. Rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety.He prompted religious tolerance and sought to abolish slavery. Chief architect of the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
Lasted from 1793 to 1794. 40,000 people died, 15% were middle-class citizens, who had supported the revolution.
plebiscite
ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue
annex
to add a territory onto an existing state or country
Napoleon
born in Corsica.First victory was against British forces at toulon.
Napoleonic Code
embodied Enlightnement principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit.Woman lost a lot of rights. Males gained control over their wives and children.
Guerilla warfare
hit-and-run raids
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated.
enclosure
the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
urbanization
movement of people to cities.
Utilitarianism
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of it's citizens
socialism
system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
communism
form of socialism that believed class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole.
proletariat
working class
sanction
penalties
appeasement
giving in to the demands of an agreeor in order to keep the peace
pacifism
opposition to all war