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157 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Great Powers
England-House of Hanover
holding that the prosperity of a nation depends upon its supply of capital
period in Europe in the late 1600’s “faith in reason”
First Estate
Second Estate
bourgeoisie-26 million
Third Estate
First and second estates combined to elect.
Estates General
July 1789, storming of Bastille (Parisians shot cannons at Bastille), Aristocrats plan to crush nat’l assembly.
replaced the committee of public safety
was a counterrevolution to the Jacobins and Robespierre. Abolished the law of the maximum and declared void the constitution of 1793.
Thermidorian reaction
Jacobins. Organized the nation defenses, formulated forgein policy, imposed governments authority
Committee of Public Safety
king has absolute power
limits right of the king (protects peoples rights)
between branches of gov’t and people and king
balance of power
Francois Marie Arouet. Supported toleration and free inquiry. Poet to philosophe
enlightened leaders during the Enlightenment and French Revolution
French aristocrat who wrote “spirit of the laws”. Proposed a balanced system of government with executive and legislative branches. Believed that the aristocracy possessed a natural and sacred obligation to rule and that their honor called them to serve the community
- “The Social Contract” people choose their government and, in so doing, effectively give birth to civil society.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
leader of the physiocrats, supporter of lasseiz fare
Francois Quesnay
“Wealth of Nations” laissez faire was the centerpiece of his massive economic study on the origins of the wealth of nations. Developed the idea of free enterprise
Adam Smith
enlightened leaders during the Enlightenment and French Revolution
French aristocrat who wrote “spirit of the laws”. Proposed a balanced system of government with executive and legislative branches. Believed that the aristocracy possessed a natural and sacred obligation to rule and that their honor called them to serve the community
logic to everything, don’t believe in miracles
believed that there was no God so no moral code outside of human life. people decide what values are nad what is moral and ethical. atheist writer.
Julien de la Mettrie
attempted property tax, this would be taxing the 2nd Estate because they own most of the property.
Louis XVI
group who believed that France needed a constitutional monarchy like Britain.
Committees of public safety. Robespierre. 1st modern draft of the army. Reign of Terror. Cult of Reason (logic + reason = religion) Theodorian Reaction. Replaced Girondins as the dominant group in the National Convention
- Jacobin and served in the National Assembly. Republic of Virtue- no kings or nobles; men would be free, equal, and educated. Played major role in the Reign of Terror
Maximilien Robespierre
Emperor of Europe, general
Napoleon Bonaparte
June 1815, Napoleon moved against the allied forces in Belgium where the British and the Prussians defeated Napoleon.
Battle of Waterloo
Russia. Backburned and winter set to defeat Napoleon
Napoleon’s Russian Campaign
was a conservative, hated Nationalism and Liberalism, Defender of European civilization, put the power back into the ruling families hands.
Redraw France (Europe), Metternich led the congress to keep France in check.
Congress of Vienna
Quadruple Alliance- Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain. Formed to maintain harmony.
Concert of Europe
Asecended the throne of France after Napoleon’s defeat. Bourbon king. Set up a two house Parliament (house of Lords and Commons).
took over after Louis XVIII. Censored the press and gave the Church greater control over education. July Ordinances. Exiled in Britain after bourgeoisie revolt. Louis Phillipe took over after Charles X.
Charles X
Sparsely populated regions. Represented in the House of Commons
“rotten boroughs”
Dual Monarchy of 1867
chief minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, known as the architect of Italian unity
Count Cavour
King of Piedmont who became king of Italy in 1861 after Garibaldi turned over his conquests.
Victor Emmanuel II
Lead the battle against Parliament for Prussia. Supporter of the Prussian monarchy and the Junker class and a devout patriot. Wanted to increase the territory and prestige of his beloved {Prussia and to protect he authority of the Prussian king.
Otto von Bismarck
King of Prussia, regarded Austria as the chief barrier to the extension of Prussian power in Germany.
William I
key diplomatic state in Italy. Joined England and France in the Crimean War against Russia
had a powerful bicameral legislature which resembled the House of Commons. A prime minister and a president; republican democracy
Third French Republic
- instigated the Franco-Prussian War; in Prussia at the time
Ems Dispatch
Prussia assembled its forces and overran Austrian territory. Prussia took no territory from Austria but latter agreed to Prussia’s annexation of Schleswig and Hiolstein and a number of small German states. Prussia became the dominant power in Germany
Austro-Prussian War of 1866
predicted that socialism would replace capitalism. Classless society; German
Karl Marx
key diplomatic state in Italy. Joined England and France in the Crimean War against Russia
had a powerful bicameral legislature which resembled the House of Commons. A prime minister and a president; republican democracy
Third French Republic
- instigated the Franco-Prussian War; in Prussia at the time
Ems Dispatch
Prussia assembled its forces and overran Austrian territory. Prussia took no territory from Austria but latter agreed to Prussia’s annexation of Schleswig and Hiolstein and a number of small German states. Prussia became the dominant power in Germany
Austro-Prussian War of 1866
predicted that socialism would replace capitalism. Classless society; German
Karl Marx
took over after Charles X
Louis Philippe
nephew of the great Napoleon I, dominated France. President of the Second French Republic; Bonapartism- mix of democratic, socialist, nationalist, and authoritarian ideas.
Napoleon III
led by Napoleon III; established by a democratic social revolution in 1848
Second French Republic
imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III; between the 2nd and 3rd French Republics
Second French Empire
Chartists came from the ranks of both intellectual radicals and workers. Democratic measures, such as universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, salaries and the abolition of property qualifications for member of Parliament, and annual elections of Parliament.
Chartist Movement
Parsifal, The Ring of the Niebelungs (opera) pre-Christian tradition opera, played on anti-Semitic feelings.------composer. German Military exploits
Richard Wagner
freed the serfs, finished Catherine the Great’s idea; preserved autocractic rule in Russia
Alexander II
“survival of the fittest”, those who lost out in the socioeconomic struggle demonstrated their unfitness
Social Darwinism
got rid of Bismarck and his treaties with France and Russia do not get renewed
William II
France withdrew its garrisons from Rome; Italian troops marched in and Rome was declared the capital of Italy completing the unification of Italy
Franco-Prussian War
Anglican cleric and professor of history and political economy. “Essay on the Principle of Population” Said that the Poor’s distress was not due to faulty political institutions or existing social and property relations but the number of children they had.
Thomas Malthus
- lessed skilled people could work. Increased production and less labor costs. Found in textile industry
factory system
your group has a history, a religion, and a culture that you are loyal to and want to preserve and hope to form own nation
cultural nationalism
the formation of a nation, flag and symbols come with this stage
political nationalism
thinking that one nation is better than another; can lead to war against nations not as advanced or if they have more resources; can be based on racism and is close to Social Darwinism
chauvinistic nationalism
wanted cooperation between the workers; dreamed of a new social order, a future utopia, where each individual could find happiness and self-fulfillment. Fourier, Saint-Simon, Owen.
small self supporting towns where everything is owned by the town people and not one big factory.
utopian socialism
invented the steamship
James Watt
“Workshop of the World”
1869, British owned near Egypt so Britain could get to colonies in Africa and India faster. Now under Egypt control.
Suez Canal
America, 1914, started by French but they all got sick from yellow fever and died so America bought it and finished it. We owned the land around it until 1970; today our large ships can’t go through it. There is a toll to get through
Panama Canal
expanding business into different products that are similar to current lines
horizontal integration
expanding business into areas that are at different points of the same production path
vertical integration
company has dominating effect with a product.
: boom and bust cycle. There are really good times and then there are low times. Stock demand goes up but then the demand goes down and people lose their job, then demand rises again and they get their job back, etc.
business cycle
efforts to add colonies would in improve industry. They (advocates of free trade) also hoped that Europeans had grown too civilized to fight over trade networks.
Old Imperialism (colonialism)
: got rid of Bismarck and his treaties with France and Russia do not get renewed
William II
Triple Entente
Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance
Austria, Italy, Germany
He went to visit Bosnia to make them feel like they were part of the Empire, a state visit to encourage nationalism. Map of his route getting to the meeting was published to get people to come out and wave. Black Hand gets there hands on this map and plan to kill him. First attempt was a bomb thrown at his car but it hit another car so he continued on his route. After meeting he wants to finish his parade and while out they get lost and get off the path and go past one of the Black Hands, Gavrilo Princip, and he and his wife are shot and killed.
Francis Ferdinand
128 Americans died; American ship traveling across the ocean (cargo, mail, people) that made it to Ireland when a German U-Boat sunk it. Britain put weapons on the boat without the Americans knowing but Germany knew and this is why it got sunk. May 7, 1915
Russian temporary government overthrown and communist ruler, Lenin, comes to rule in October. He wants nothing to do with the war so he starts working with Germany to get out of it. This causes a Russian civil war, communist against everyone else
Bolshevik Revolution
German fight France first by going through Belgium to go to take Paris and knock them down quick. When they are done fighting France Russia should have gotten all their troops organized and to the front line so Germany will fight Russia. But when Germany goes through Belgium England gets upset because Belgium is suppose to be a neutral country.
- Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Italy, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Schlieffen Plan
Germany, Austria, Italy, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Central powers
Britain, France, Russia, and many others including the US
Allied powers
when Ottoman Empire falls who will fill it in?
Eastern Question
treats Germany badly; they had to demilitarize, no air force, no big ocean ships, take the blame for the war, and pay for all the damages over the years.
Treaty of Versailles
Russian communist leader of the Bolsheivik Revolution
international club to discuss foreign issues and problems. US did not sign this because the Senate thought that it would mean we would be pulled into another war soon.
League of Nations
treaty signed in March between Russia and Germany
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Armistice signed, day now called Veterans Day
Nov. 11, 1918
czar of Russia
Czar Nicholas II
proposed by Wilson after WWII
Fourteen Points
: from Berlin to German ruler in Mexico. Britain intercepts the messages and translates it to say something about if America should enter the war, convince Mexico to invade America so that the Americans will have to stay and defend their borders and not come to aid Britain and France. Wilson gets message and we enter the war.
Zimmerman Note
Bismarck and Jules Ferry, the premier of France, called an international conference in Berlin in 1884 to lay some ground rules for the development of Africa south of the Sahara. The nations at the conference agreed to stop slavery and slave trade in Africa.
the Berlin Conference
(aka Washington Naval Conference) 1921-22, US, Britain, France, Italy and Japan agree not to build any new battle ships for 10 years and to establish an even ratio of ships among them all
Washington Disarmament Conference
said that WW I was a solution to international problems and agreed to settle quarrels through peaceful means.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Oct. 24, 1929
Black Thursday...stock market crash
problems with it- lots of Jews in it, high unemployment rate, German communist and Fascist come out, Nazi party emerges.
Weimar Republic
1912 organized the Fascist party (opposed communism): 1 party state, government runs media, no free elections, and secret police. In 1922 governs Italy and turns the economy around and reestablished Italy’s power.
Austrian but lives in Germany, artist, fought in WW I, joined Nazis in 1919 and shortly becomes the ruler, blames all of Germanys problems on the Jews, gets arrested and write Mein Kampf while in jail, becomes chancellor in 1933, become president when current president dies and Nazi have control of the government.
Hitler, President of France and Prime Minister of Britain meet to talk about Hitler’s demands for the Sudetenland. France and Britain allow Hitler to take this land with Hitler agreeing to leave the rest of Europe alone.
Munich Pact
Japan’s Prime Minister who has total control of military and starts taking over other countries, makes US mad so we stop economically supporting them, leads to attacks on Pearl Harbor.
Hideki Tojo
1936, Fascist General Francisco Franco, Germany and Italy support fascist group and Russia support traditional Spain but Spain falls to Franco and it becomes a fascist government.
Spanish Civil War
In the early 1940s Japan founded the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, claiming to unite Asian nations against Western domination. In effect, this act brought much of Asia under Japanese control as part of Japan’s political and economic empire. Japanese conquests of the Philippines, Indonesia, Burma, Malaya, and Indochina ended Western colonial administration in these areas
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Sept. 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland so France and Britain declare war on Germany. Poland is defeated and divided between Russia and Germany.
1939, Germany and USSR sign and it agrees that USSR will not be attacked by Germany and will not fight Germany.
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Dec. 7, 1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor at 7 AM on a Sunday, the declare war but message does not get to DC until the attack had already happened, we declare was on Japan December 8, 1941, brings us into WW II because Germany and Italy declare war on us, our allies are Britain, France and Russia.
Germany, Italy, and Japan entered into a 10-year military and economic agreement. The stated “prime purpose” of the Tripartite Pact, signed in Berlin, was to establish and maintain a new order, calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned. The pact expressed the formalization of the Axis partnership, and the unmistakable targets of the strengthened alliance were the United States and the Soviet Union.
Tripartite Pact
founded in 1686, a.k.a. League of Augsburg
Grand Alliance
General who retook the Philippines from the Japanese
General MacArthur
: Soviet Union wanting Allies to attack France so there would be fighting coming from the west and the east of Germany.
second front controversy
prime minister of Britain during WWII
Winston Churchill
dictator after Lenin in Russia
Joseph Stalin
took office in 1933, implemented new economic plan to get out of the depression called the New Deal, Americans stuck with FDR instead of turning to communism and fascism
Franklin D. Roosevelt
summer/fall 1940, Britain uses radar to detect German plane and defeats Germany
Battle of Britain
August 1942-January 1943, Germans attacking the city of Stalingrad, Germans lose the city because Soviet Union surrounds the city, 600,000 German troops surrendered and taken to camps.
Spring 1940, Norway, Holland, Belgium, France, and Demark all fall to Germany. Germans break through defensive lines quickly and take control of the city.
March 1941, if you want weapons from the US we will lend it to you with a lease, led to cash and carry: bring cash and the weapon is all yours.
August 6, 1945, US drops atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, Japan as a way to end the war with them, bomb designed for Germany, 80,000 die from blast and radiation kills many more after.
June 6 1944, invasion of France, Germans think Allies will attack at one place but we attack at Normandy, Germans didn’t think it was the real battle so they didn’t send reinforcements so Allies able to get inland, led to the liberation of Paris and allie and Soviet armies both at the border of Germany.
D-Day Invasion
6 million Jews killed, labor and death concentration camps for Jews and political leaders opposing Hitler, Hitler’s Final Solution- killing all the Jews
It was founded in 1945 by 51 states, replacing The League of Nations which was founded in 1919. over 191 state members
United Nations
UN meets Feb 1945
San Francisco Conference
keep the peace and control, 15 nations represented-5 permanent members who are the big winners of the war (US, Britain, France, Soviet Union and China) and 10 non permanent members who rotate every 2 years.
Security Council
what US called the Soviet Union because they shut down Eastern Europe to the world.
Iron Curtain
Political analyst, advisor and diplomat, in charge of long-range planning for the State Department following World War II. He developed the concept of "containment" as a strategy to keep Soviet influence from expanding and maintain the status quo.
George Kennan
west Germany (under Soviet Union’s control)
Federal Republic of Germany
June 1948 when Soviet authorities, claiming "Technical difficulties," halted all traffic by land and by water into or out of the western-controlled section of Berlin. The only remaining access routes into the city were three 20 mile-wide air corridors across the Russian zone of Germany. Faced with the choice of abandoning the city or attempting to supply its inhabitants with the necessities of life by air, the Western Powers chose the latter course and for the next 11 months sustained the city's 2 1/2 million residents in one of the greatest feats in aviation history.
Berlin Airlift
east Germany (divided up into 3 groups and controlled by Britain, France, and US)
German Democratic Republic
help Greeks and Turks in their battle against communism, so US decides to give aid to any nation trying to fight communist control.
Truman Doctrine
alliance that west Europe and US signs North Atlantic Treaty Organization
replaces Stalin as ruler of Soviet Union, knows that comminist is different than democracy but believes we should all still get along and exist together, ruled from 1956-1964
-Warsaw Pact: 1955, treaty between Eastern Europe and Soviet Union,
French defeated here during Vietnam War in 1954
Dien Bien Phu
was produced by a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea.
Geneva Accords
1955, treaty between Eastern Europe and Soviet Union,
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union satellite that scared the US because it means that Soviets are ahead of us in space technology.
1961, built in East Germany so they could not leave and go into the noncommunist West Germany, West Germany is being rebuilt while the Soviet Union has little money and is not rebuilding their part of Germany.
Berlin Wall
US has spy planes flying over Cuba and they find that the Soviet Union is building missile bases there, this threats the US’s safety because we only have a 10 minute warning from when the missile is launched and when it hits, US send troops to south Florida and barricade Cuba, Khrushchev doesn’t want to start another war so he call off the building of the base, US takes out missile base we had in Turkey
Cuban Missile Crisis
1959 Cuban Revolution, communist and ruler so Cuba is now a communist country, wealthy Cubans lost their land so they fled to the US, Cuba is now getting economic support from Soviet Union, we cut off Cuba and their goods
Fidel Castro
communist leader of China from 1943-1976, While in power, he collectivized industry and agriculture under the Great Leap Forward. Unfortunately, because of the Great Leap Forward, 20 million people starved to death. He forged, and later split, an alliance with the Soviet Union
Mao Zedong
: Agreement on ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam signed in Paris and entered into force January 17, 1973.
Paris Accords
Vietnam communist who fights against the French, US sees this war as part of the Cold War, we support France by sending money and military aid, France lost major battle in 1954.
Ho Chi Minh
1950, North Korea (NK) communist and South Korea (SK) not communist but not democratic, NK attacks SK and US has to provide aid to SK because of Truman Doctrine and containment. Macarthur General for this war, pushes NK back for 2 years but it goes back and forth until its end in 1953, Armistice signed
Korean War
$13 million of aid to European countries, economic package for Europe after WW II, we help rebuild what was destroyed, Europeans buy good from.
Marshall Plan
: chancellor for West Germany (noncommunist parts) from 1949-63, punished Nazis, gave pension to Jews, and poured money into rebuilding West Germany.
Konrad Adenauer
West German Chancellor after Adenauer, against Soviet/communist East Europe, was chancellor when Germany was reunified and put lots of money into it
Helmut Kohl
General who invented the Free French forces in WW II, then became president of France for short while, reestablished the Fifth Republic, resigned in 1969
Charles DeGualle
Prime Minister of Britain from 1945-1951 right after Churchill
Clement Attlee
first women Prime Minister of Britain, severed as longest prime minister from 1979-1990 when you resigned
Margaret Thatcher
Soviet Union not happy with Khrushchev and how he dealt with the Cuban Missile Crisis so they replace him with Brezhnev in 1964.
Leonid Brezhnev
ruler after Brezhnev, 1985, believed in reconstruction and openness, ruler until end of Soviet Union in 1991
Mikhail Gorbachev
peaceful time in the 1970s between the US and Soviet Union because of limited nuclear weapons
ruler of Russia in 1990 who announced Russia’s limited independence, led to disbanding of Soviet Union.
Boris Yeltsin
CIS, group of nations that still held onto Soviet Union beliefs after its fall in 1991
Commonwealth of Independent States