Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was believed to cause the Black Death?
Polluted air mass, Jews poisoning wells, contagion, God's Wrath
What impact did the Black Death have?
Lower population, more available land, increased wages, wage cap = peasant uprisings
What was the avignon Papacy?
Papacy in French area, conflict between King and Pope, decline of papal prestige
What was the Great Schism and how was it solved?
New Roman pope selected, french cardinals pick a french pope, divided loyoalties. Council of Pisa called to solve it.
What were the critiques and impacts of John Wyclif and John Hus?
Wycliff - Criticized papal authority, sola scriptura, attack on transubstantiation.
Hus - attacks papacy and clerical corruption. Thrown in prison and killed
What was Renaissance humanism?
Revival of humanities.
Who was Petrarch?
Father of humanism and return to ancient Rome. Ad fontes (Back to the sources)
What was distinctive about the Ranasissance in northern Europe?
Vernacular literature develops, more christian aspect.
What was "Christian humanism"?
Greater emphasis on ad fontes Christianitatis, revised the Church Fathers, return church to pristine state, Bible in original languages.
What impact did the invention of the printing press have?
Faster reproduction of books, cheaper books, faster spread of ideas, no mor ecorrupt copies.
Who was Erasmus and why was he significant?
Prince of Humanists, wored on CHurch Fathers, 1st printed Greek NT, "laid the egg that Luther hatched," critique of church
What were Luther's main beliefs?
No purgatory, Justified and sinner at same time, No indulgences, 2 sacraments, no masses or prayers for dead, rejection of pop, no good works to get into heaven.
Explain the three sola's - gratia, fide, scriptura?
Justification through grace and faith alone.
Reliegious truth in scripture alone.
What were the main reasons for Luther's success?
Printing press, Politics (Charles need Lutheran princes to fight Turks), Exisiting discontent with Church, Effective propaganda.
How did Zwingli differ from Luther?
Worship should be quiet meditation, contemplation, and remembrance. Flesh counts for nothing in the Eucharist.
If Calvin insisted on predestination, why did he also emphasize moral behavior?
The body of Christ needed to be kept pure so they needed good moral behavior.
How did worship in the Reformed tradition differ from Lutheranism?
Quiet, no images, no stained glass, no sculptures, no music.
What implications do the phrases "Conter and Catholic Reformation have?
Counter- changes in Catholicism spurred by Protestant reformation
Catholic - Changes in Catholicism had history of their own.
Where did Catholic reform before Luther took place?
What was the significance of the Jesuits?
Spanish soldies of Christ wanted to convert Muslims, Trying to Convert Protestants to Catholics, Anti-religous tolerance among rulers encouraged, Encouraged revolts against Protestant rulers.
What was the significance of the Council of Trent?
"trickle-down" reform from bishops, establishment of seminaries, reform of clerical abuses.
What were some of the common beliefs of the radical reformers?
The world is ending and we must get ready now, must separate from secular society and create purly godly community
What aspect of religion did the Anabaptists emphasize?
Rejection of infant baptism, recreate NT church attempt, rejection of civil government.
What elements did the Spiritualists emphasize?
Rejection of overly Biblical reforms (no training in Greek and Hebrew), Direct inspiration of the HOly Spirit, Enthusiasts, Quakers, Shakers (modern Amish and Mennonites)