Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the cause for the Boxer Rebellion?
too many foreigners in China
Why did Japan make the decision to westernize in the late 1800's?
so that they would not become a victim of imperialism
During the rule of the Hanover Dynasty
the Office of Prime Minister emerged
The expansion plans of Cecil Rhodes in South Africa were a major cause for the
Boer War
William and Mary became the co-rulers of England as a result of the
Glorious Revolution
England would gain control of the Suez Canal in the 1850's by
buying the majority of Egypt's stock in the canal
The Meiji Restoration led to the modernization of
Risorgimento Movement
wanted to unite Italy under one Italian ruler
Open Door Policy
all countries could trade equally with China, proposed by John Hay
Guantanamo Bay
a U.S. naval base in Cuba
Otto von Bismarck
became the Chancellor of Prussia and united Germany
Recognized as the first official British Prime Minister
Robert Walpole
He was the author of the Open Door Policy
John Hay
Overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established the Chinese Republic in 1911.
Sun Yet Sen
Dutch farmers who settled in South Africa
The major cause for the Spanish American War
Sinking of the Maine
The "architect" of Italian unity
What incident was a major cause for the start of World War I
Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated
What policies led to the downfall of the Provisional Government in Russia in November, 1917?
Kerensky kept Russia in the war
How did Stalin and Trotsky differ in their views of Communism?
Trotsky-internationalist, believed all the world should be turned to communist immediately
Stalin-nationalist, believed all of Russia should convert to communism and then the rest of the world
What was the purpose for Lenin's establishment of the NEP?
for a temporary return to Capitalism to restore the economic conditions in Russia
The Populist Party of the 1890's was supported mostly by
The most important issue that united the Populist party was
the economic concept of free silver
Who were the three progressive Presidents?
Theodore Roosevelt
William H. Taft
Woodrow Wilson
President Wilson believed that the most important of his Fourteen Points was the
establishment of a League of Nations
Of the following, the president whose administration initiated the most anti-trust proceedings was that of
William H. Taft
The concept of the Five Year Plan for economic development was started in Russia by
Joseph Stalin
Major reforms aimed at improving U.S. society were brought about due to the
Progressive Era
The devastating weapon that dominated World War I was the
machine gun
The most severe terms of the Treaty of Versailles were applied to
investigative writers that publicised the problems of society : Lincoln Steffins and Ida Tarbell
Zimmerman Note
proposed alliance between Germany and Mexico and was a cause for U.S. participation in WWI
Blank Check Clause
reparation payment by Germany, where they had to pay an unnamed sum
American troops that fouhgt in France in WWI
His book publicised the political corruption found in the big cities of the U.S.
Lincoln Steffins
Title given to Theodore Roosevelt's presidency
Square Deal
Type of land warfare characteristic of WWI
Trench Warfare
Commanded U.S. forces that fouhgt in WWI
John Jake Pershing
Influential Wisconsin political leader who started the Progressive Era on the local level
Robert LaFollette
Term used for the secret ballot that was adopted in the U.S. during the progressive era
austrailian ballot
This nation's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare played a major part in the entry of the U.S. into WWI
What dangerous political situation developed because of the bad economic conditions after World War
led to development of totalitarian government led by dictators
What was the overall theory of the New Deal?
try something and if that doesn't work, try something else
How did Hitler gain power ?
through the political process
During the 1920's in Germany, the Weimar Republic
was blamed for losing the war
The major reason for the U.S. eventually recovering from the Great Depression was
the start of the war preparedness program in 1939
The only country to establish a communist dictatorship between world wars was
Between world wars, the country that suffered the most from uncontrolled inflation was
In 1922, Mussolini gained power in Italy as result of the
March on Rome
President Hoover's immediate approach in dealing with the Depression was
"rugged individualism"
The major event in the increase in membership to the Nazi Party in Germany was
the rapid increase in unemployment caused by the depression
A Fascist government is the modern version of
an absolute monarchy
After becoming Chancellor, Hitler began his goal of
uniting all German-speaking peoples
Between world wars, the major problem faced by most nations involved
the economy
Command economy
dictatorship and totalitarian governments
Mein Kampf
the book that Hitler wrote for his plan for Germany
Event that marked the start of the Great Depression in the U.S.
Stock Market Crash
dictatorship on the far left of the political scale
social class that supports the dictatorship to the political left
lower class
dictatorship on the far right of the political scale
social class that supports the far right dictatorship
upper and middle
political party that grew out of the German Worker's Party
title given to FDR's presidency
New Deal
What was the significanece of the presidental election of 1940?
Roosevelt broke the two term tradition
What was the reason for the policy of appeasement followed by the western democracies in the 1930's?
to make sure that their countries would not get involved in another WWI because it was so bad
What did Hitler and Stalin sign in 1939?
a non-agression treaty
Hitler's first succesfful aggressive territorial move was his occupation of
the Rhineland
In September, 1940, Roosevelt made a destroyer for bases deal with
Hitler's decision to try and defeat England by air power alone, led to the
Battle of Britain
As a result of the Munich Conference, Hitler was allowed to occupy
England and France declared war on Germany as a result of Hitler's
invasion of Poland
The first sea battle to be fought by air plans only was the Battle of
The Coral sea
In December of 1917, the Balfour Declaration
favored the creation of a Jewish national state
Manhattan Project
allied program set up by FDR to develop an atomic bomb
Operation Overlord
allied code name plan to invade France
movement started in the 1800's which hoped to start an independent Jewish state in the Middle East
lend lease act
President FDR had authority to provide military supplies to any ally under any of his terms
new type of warfare used by Germany that overran Polan in a month
Two factors that enabled England to win the Battle of Britan
RAF(Royal Airforce)
it was a restatement of Wilson's Fourteen Points
Atlantic Charter
It was the site of the Allied landings in France on June 6, 1944.
Target of the first atomic bomb
This battle was the turning point in the Pacific war
He commanded the Allied landings in France on D-Day
He violated the Treaty of Versailles when he annexed Austria to his Third Reich
British Prime Minister in the 1930's who believed in world peace through appeasement
What precedent was set with Pope Stephen II's crowning of Pepin the Short?
pope claimed the authority to put rulers in or depose them
What role did immunities play in the decline of Charlemagne's empire?
government breakdown
What was the goal of the manor and the result?
goal: self sufficiency
result: great decline of trade
A feudal land grant given by a Lord to a vassal was called a
The major obligation of a vassal was
military service
The Donation of Pepin was a land grant which eventually became
The Papal States(Vatican)
Charles Martel kept western Europe from becoming part of the Islamic empire by
defeating the Moors at the Battle of Tours
The Carolingian Dynasty was named after
As pope, Innocent III
brought the Church to the peak of its power in the Middle Ages
The area of western Europe ruled by Charlemagne became known as the
Holy Roman Empire
A Lord who was captured in battlew ould be ransomed by his
Treaty of Verdun
split up Charlemagne's empire among his three grandsons
Mayor of the Palace
ran the empire for the Merovingian kings
lay investiture
when a lay person appoints a clergy member
ex. the king appoints a bishop
City of God
written by Saint Augustine used by Charlemagne to rule his empire
the system of agriculture used on the manor
3 field system
2 reasons for burning heretics at the stake
1. example
2. purify soul
title given to Charlemagne by Pope Leo III on Christmas day in the year 800
Holy Roman Emperor
the most feared Barbarian invaders of the 9th and 10th centuries
the center of life during the Middle Agesq
the group of peasants who were bound to the land
church court established in the Middle Ages to deal with heresy
court of inquisition
Why did Henry I of England establish a system of traveling judges throughout the country?
to get rid of Feudal law and replace it with the kings law
What problems did the Capetian Dynasty have to solve in order to establish a strong monarchy in France?
gave English kings more land in France
Into what two groups did England's Parliament become divided and what one power idd early Parliament have?
House of Lords and House of Commons, their only power was to approve new tax laws
To keep the kingdom of France from being divided, the custom of primogeniture was established by
Hugh Capet
The coronation of William the Conquerer in London in 1066 led to the establishment of the
Norman Dynasty
As a consequence of the reign of Alfred the Great
a strong navy became a basic British policy
Joan of Arc
inspired the French to victory in the 100 years war
Magna Carta
made the king subject to the law in England
War of the Roses
struggle over British throne between Lancasters and Yorks, Henry Tudor won
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
Alfred the Great ordered monks to write about the History of England
long bow
weapon that dominated the 100 years war
Bayeaux Tapestry
tapestry that tells of William of Normandy's conquest of England
This country eventually won the Hundred Years war
victory in this battle gained William of Normandy the English throne
Battle of Hastings
British assembly which was created as a resutl of a noble uprising led by Simon de Montfort
he was murdered in his cathedral at Canterbury
Thomas Beckett
The Treaty of Troyes made Henry V of England aslo king of this country
Henry Tudor defeated him to win the War of the Roses
Richard III
Crime for which Joan of Arc was tried and found guilty
Why did the middle class tend to support the political authority of kings over nobles?
because of the benefits they could gain from uniform law from the kings
How did the philosophical concepts of Ablard and Aquinas differ?
Abelard-used the concept of reason only
Aquinas-used the concepts of reason and faith
How did Gothic architecture get its name?
from the Italians, to ridicule the new style as barbaric
Dante criticized society by using
the souls of the dead
The revival of trade led to the
growth of towns in western Europe
In the early Middle Ages, literature was kept alive by
songs of the troubadours
During the Great Western Schism
three different individuals claimed to be pope
developed by council of constance, which made church council superior to pope, which ended the western schism
avignon papacy
popes ruled from France, instead of Rome
free status
most important of the rights of the townspeople, which said: if a person lived in a town for a year and one day unchallanged, then that person was free
city captured by the fourth crusade
country in western europe in which trade revived
town organization which was made up of skilled workers only
craft guild
his Summa Theologica was intended to prove all Church doctrine
thomas aquinas
document by which feudal lords granted freedom to towns on their fiefs
charters of liberty
his Canterbury Tales is considered to be the first book in modern English
Jeffrey Chaucer
their persecution of Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land led to the Crusades
seljuk turks
architectural feature which made Gothic architecture possible
flying buttresses
What were two characteristics of humanism?
Renaissance in thought characterized by life is worth living
What was naturalism and what factors led to its development?
the Renaissance in art-the ability to make paintings look real with shading, perspective, and color
how did the concept of the universe differ between Copernicus and Kepler?
both believed in the theory of heliocentric
Copernicus-perfect circles
What was the long range significance of Newton's scientific concept of natural law?
it would be used by other scholars in other fields of knowledge
How did the view of salvation differ between Luther and Calvin?
Luther-Salvation by Faith Alone
Hans Holbein gained importance during the Renaissance for his
portraits of famous people
Galileo was forced to appear before the Court of the Inquisition for his
theory of the universe
John Tetzel played a role in the start of the Reformation in Germany with his
exaggerated claims on indulgences
Michelangelo produced the
ceiling of the Sistene Chapel
The ruler of each German state picked the religion of his state according to the
Peace of Augsburg
The order of succession to the English throne as established by Henry VII was to be
The peace of augsburg resulted in
a religiously divided Germany
the act of supremacy
made the ruler of England head of its church
The purpose of the Council of Trent was the
bringing about of Church reform
The Prince
written by Machiavelli; was a guide for rulers about how they should rule based on "the ends justify the means"
95 Theses
written by Martin Luther, criticising church doctrine, challanging someone to debate him
the city of the Renaissance
greatest dramatist of the Renaissance
significant improvement credited to John Gutenburg
moveable type
church created in England by Elizabeth I
anglican church
the famous portrait painted by DaVinci
mona lisa
the theory of the universe according to Ptolemy
the two groups of English Calvinists
Puritans and Pilgrims
social class attracted to Calvinism
middle class
major religious changes in England took place during:
the reigns of Henry VIII's children
what was the long range significance of LaSalle's voyage down the Mississippi River in 1682?
blocked westward expansion of Britain
What were the two major policies of Peter the Great?
westernization and warm water seaports
What was the significance of the Treaty of Paris in 1763?
France lost all of their north american empire
what was the consequence of the defeat of the Armada?
decline of Spain
Fredinand and Isabella's marriage began:
the unification of Spain
the nation whose overseas empire was founded by private trading companies was
during the reign of Philip II
Spain experienced a Golden Age
Richelieu's goal for France was completed by
Cardinal Mazarin
Russia was to be the successor of the Byzantine Empire, or the 3rd Rome, according to
Ivan IV
The expansionist policies of Louis XIV would result in
four World Wars
Line of Demarcation
a line drawn by the pope to prevent Spain and Protugal from fighting over possessions (colonies)
where Louis XIV built the palace to symbolize the greatness of France
Edict of Nantes
passed by Henry IV, gave religious and political freddom to the Hugenots
one result of Mongol rule on Russia
no Renaissance
First European nation to build an overseas empire
The empire builder that was a "true colonizer"
Catherine the Great took part in the partition of Poland with both of these nations
Prussia and Austria
The Alliance formed by William III which defeated Louis XIV in the War of the Spanish Succession
Grand Alliance
title taken by Russian rulers, meaning "Caesar"
Phase of the Seven years war fought in America
French and Indian War
Since they colonized the same areas, a potential for conflict existed between these two nations
France and England
Richeulieu's goal:
to make the king supreme in France, and France supreme in Europe