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61 Cards in this Set

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4 new technologies during the age of discovery
1. magnetic compass
2. astrolabe
3. rear rutter
4. lateen sail
primary reason for the age of discovery
to break the Italian trade monopoly
Merchantilism
wealth = strength
*colonies very impt.
What did colonies have to do for merchantilism?
1. provide raw materials
2. serve as a market
3. couldn't manufacture
4. couldn't trade with any other country
the 1st European nation to build an overseas empire
Portugal
Who started Portugal?
Prince Henry the Navigator
siad around the bottom of Africa and made it to India(found new route)
Vasco De Gama
Holland
took over the Portugese empire
what incident began the unification of Spain?
when Ferdinand and Isabella married
What were Ferdinand and Isabella's ways to bring about unification to Spain, and how did they achieve them?
1. one monarchy
2. one church

they set up the Spanish Inquisition under Torquemada to make all the Moors and Jews to convert
Amerigo Vespucci
worked for the DeMedici bank, wrote "Novus Mundus" which said that Columbus had found a new world, not a new route to India
Line of Demarcation
a line drawn down the new map by the pope because he didnt want Spain and Portugal to fight over the colonies
Magellan
proved that the world was round
Conquistadors
soldiers of fortune who built the Spanish empire in America
True Colonizers
Spain, because when they conquered an area, they forced their culture on the people
1st permanent British settlement in America
Jamestown
Who set up colonies in America for England?
private trading companies
Why did French colonies have a potential for conflict?
because they settled in the same locations as England
LaSalle(France)
sailed to Gulf of Mexico to claim interior of area for France, which would block the westward expansion of Britain
Quebec
the first permanent French settlement in America
Duke of Sully(France)
financial advisor of Henry IV, who was later fired by Marie DeMedici which caused an the 8 year economic decline of France
Charles V(Spain)
member of Hapsburg Dynasty, divided empire between his son Philip(Spanish possessions) and his brother Ferdinand(Austrian possessions)
Edict of Nantes
gave religious and political freedom to the Hugenots
Philip II(Spain)
Spanish Golden Age, invaded France but was defeated-which caused the decline of Spain and a clear way for Britain and France to go to the new world
Louis XIII(France)
regent: mother Marie DeMedici, took over at 16, appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief advisor
William of Orange(Holland)
organized the provinces of Holland into a revolt against Philip II(Spain)
Henry IV(France)
brought on the Bourbon Dynasty, appointed Duke of Sully as financial advisor, passed the Edict of Nantes,
Cardinal Richelieu(France)
chief advisor of Louis XIII(France) that wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe by weakening : nobles, Hugenots, Hapsburgs
Duke of Sully(France)
financial advisor of Henry IV, who was later fired by Marie DeMedici which caused an the 8 year economic decline of France
Louis XIV(France)
regent: Cardinal Mazarin, 2 key advisors, tried to convince Charles II to name Louis XIV's grandson Philip as successor
Edict of Nantes
gave religious and political freedom to the Hugenots
Cardinal Mazarin(France)
completed Richelieu's goals and was regent for Louis XIV(France)
Louis XIII(France)
regent: mother Marie DeMedici, took over at 16, appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief advisor
John Colbert(France)
financial minister of Louis XIV(France) that decided to build a palace outside of Paris as a symbol of the greatness of France
Cardinal Richelieu(France)
chief advisor of Louis XIII(France) that wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe by weakening : nobles, Hugenots, Hapsburgs
Louis XIV(France)
regent: Cardinal Mazarin, 2 key advisors, tried to convince Charles II to name Louis XIV's grandson Philip as successor
Louvois(France)
military advisor for Louis XIV(France) who convinced Louis XIV that the security of France depended on the control of the Natural Frontiers
Cardinal Mazarin(France)
completed Richelieu's goals and was regent for Louis XIV(France)
Natural Frontiers
English channel, Rhine River, Alps, Mediterranean Sea, Pyrennes, and Atlantic Ocean
John Colbert(France)
financial minister of Louis XIV(France) that decided to build a palace outside of Paris as a symbol of the greatness of France
Louvois(France)
military advisor for Louis XIV(France) who convinced Louis XIV that the security of France depended on the control of the Natural Frontiers
Natural Frontiers
English channel, Rhine River, Alps, Mediterranean Sea, Pyrennes, and Atlantic Ocean
War of the Spanish Succession cause
the Spanish Hapsburg Dynasty died out
William III
wants to stop Louis XIV(France) from getting the Natural Frontiers, so he forms the Grand Alliance
John Churchill(Duke of Marlborough)
military leader of the Grand Alliance formed by William III; his greatest battle was the Battle of Blenheim - which turned everything in favor of the allies
Treaty of Utrecht
ended the war of the Spanish succession
The Mongols
conquered Russia
The effects of the Mongols on Russia
1. no Renaissance
2. no reformation
3. no scientific achievments
Where did the Rise of Russia begin?
Duchy of Moscow
Ivan III(Russia)
made decision to stop paying taxes to the Mongols
Ivan II(Russia)
saw Russia as the next greatest nation and the 3rd Rome, married the daughter of the last Byzantine Emperor, took the title Tsar
Peter the Great(Russia)
began Romanov Dynasty, had policies of westernization -forced Russia to go through a Renaissance- and warm water seaports -Sea of Azov-, went up against the Sweedish (won Battle of Poltava-began rise of Russia), built Saint Petersburg which was a symbol of westernization
Catherine the Great(Russia)
married to Peter III, planned w/ Russian officials to overthrow Peter III, became Tsarina, had same policies as Peter the Great(westernization and warm water seaports), joins with Austria and Prussia to partition Poland(completely gets rid of Poland)
Frederick WIlliam the Great Elector(Prussia)
backed the Bourbons during 30 years war, gained more territory to increase size of Prussia at the Treaty of Westphalia
Frederick I(Prussia)
supports the Hapsburgs during the war of spanish succession, given title King of Prussia at the Treaty of Utrecht
Frederick William I(Prussia)
tried to turn Prussia into the "Sparta of the North"
Frederick II - Frederick the Great(Prussia)
brought Prussia to the peak of its power
Seven Years War cause
system of alliances
Seven Years War in Europe
Frederick II(Frederick the Great)(Prussia) was saved b/c of a change of rulers in Russia and b/c of William Pitt
William Pitt(England)
prime minister of England, convinced Parliament to loan money to keep Frederick in the war; his ideas will turn the war in Englands favor
Seven Years War in America
1. Battle of Quebec-Wolf defeats French
2. Treaty of Paris-ended the war *FRENCH LOST THEIR NORTH AMERICAN EMPIRE*