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100 Cards in this Set

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nutrition
science that studies the relationship of foods to optimal health and performance
substrate
substance acted upon by an enzyme (examples: carbohydrates and fats)
nutrients
substances found in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues
nutrient density
a measure of the amount of nutrients and calories in various foods
calorie
the amouont of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade; used to measure the energy value of food and cost (energy expenditure) of physical activity
carbohydrates
a classification of dietary nutrient containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the major source of enery for the human body
simple carbohydrates
composed of simple or double sugar units with little nutritive value; divided into monosaccharides and disaccharides
monosaccharides
the simplest carbohydrates (sugars) formed by five-or six-carbon skeletons. The three most common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose
adipose tissue
fat cells in the body
disaccharides
simple carbohydrates formed by two monosaccharide units linked together, one of which is glucose. The major disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose
complex carbohydrates
carbohydrates formed by three or more simple sugar molecules linked together; also referred to as "polysaccharides"
glycogen
form in which glucose is stored in the body
dietary fiber
a complex carbohydrate in plant foods that is not digested but is essential to the digestion process
peristalsis
involuntary muscle contractions of intestinal walls that facilitate excretion of wastes
fats
nutrients containing carbon, hydrogen, some oxygen, and sometimes other chemical elements
trans fatty acid
solidified fat formed by adding hydrogen to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to increase shelf life
omega-3 fatty acids
polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in cold-water seafood, flaxseed, and flaxseed oil; thought to lower blood choleswterol and triglycerides
omega-6 fatty acids
polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in corn and sunflower oils and most oils in processed foods
lipoproteins
lipids covered by proteins, they transport fats in the bood; types are LDL, HDL, and VDL
sterols
derived fats, of which cholesterol is the best-known example
proteins
complex organic compounds containing nitrogen and formed by combinations of amino acids; the main substances used in the body to build and repair tissues
enzymes
catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions in the body
amino acids
chemical compounds that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the basic building blocks the body uses to build different types of protein
vitamins
organic nutrients essential for normal metabolism, growth, and development of the body
minerals
inorganic elements found in the body and in food; essential for normal body functions
Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs)
a general term that describes four types of nutrient standards that establish adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes in the diet. These standards are Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequeate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake levels (UL)
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
the amount of a nutrient that meets the dietary needs in half the people
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
The daily amount of a nutrient (statistically determined from the EARs) considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of almost 98% of all healthy people in the U.S.
Adequate Intakes (AI)
The recommended amount of a nutrient intake when sufficient evidence is not available to calculate the EAR and resulting RDA
Upper Intake Level (UL)
the highest level of nutrient intake that appears safe for most healthy people, beyond which exists an increased risk of adverse effects
Daily Values (DVs)
reference values for nutrients and food components used in food labels
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy (caloric) intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health
pro-vitamin
a compound that can be converted into a vitamin
phytochemicals
chemical compounds that block the formation of cancerous tumors and disrupt the progress of cancer; found in large quantities in fruits and vegetables
vegetarians
individuals whose diet is of vegetable or plant origin
vegans
vegetarians who eat no animal products at all
ovovegetarians
vegetarians who allow eggs in their diet
lactovegetarians
vegetarians who eat foods rom the milk group
ovolactovegetarians
vegetarians who include eggs and milk products in their diet
semivegetarians
vegetarians who include milk products, eggs, and fish and poultry in the diet
mediterranean diet
typical diet of people around the Mediterranean region that focuses on olive oil, red wine, grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, with limited amounts of meat, fish, milk, and cheese
supplements
tablets, pills, capules, liquids, or powders that contain vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, or fiber that are taken to increase the intake of these nutrients
megadoses
for most vitamins, 10 times the RDA or more; for vitamins A and D, 5 and 2 times the RDA, respectively
antioxidants
compounds such as vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances in the body to form harmful compounds
oxygen free radicals
substances formed during metabolism that attack and damage proteins and lipids, in particular the cell membrane and DNA, leading to diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and emphysema
International unit (IU)
measure of nutrients in foods
folate
one of the B vitamins; helps prevent ceratin birth defects and seems to offer protection against colon and cervical cancers
anticoagulant
any substance that inhibits blood clotting
synergy
a reaction in which the reuslt is greater than the sum of its two parts
registered dietician (RD)
a person with a college degree in dietetics who meets all certification and continuing education requirements of the American Dietetic Association or Dietitians of Canada
Functional food
food or food ingredients that contain physiologically active substances that provide specific health benefits beyond those supplied by basic nutrition
fortified foods
foods containing commercially added nutrients that were either not present or present in very insignificant amounts
Genetically modified foods (GM foods)
foods whose basic genetic material (DNA) is manipulated by inserting genes with desirable traits from one plant, animal, or microorganism into another one to either introduce new traits or enhance existing ones
Adenosine tripohsphate (ATP)
a high-energy chemical compound that the body uses for immediate energy
lactic acid
end of product of anaerobic glycolysis (metabolism)
carbohydrate loading
increasing intake of carbs during heavy aerobic training or prior to aerobic endurance events that last longer than 90 minutes
creatine
an organic compound derived from meat, fish, and amino acids that combines with inorganic phosphate to form creatine phosphate
creatine phosphate (CP)
a high-energy compound that is used by the cells to resynthesize ATP during all-out activities of very short duration
osteoporosis
softening, deterioration, or loss of bone mineral density that leads to disability, bone fractures, and even death from medical complications
estrogen
female sex hormone; essential for bone formation and conservation of bone density
oligomenorrhea
irregular menstrual cycles
amenorrhea
cessation of regular menstrual flow
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein, found in red blood cells, that transports oxygen
ferritin
iron stored in the body
cardiovascular diseases
the array of conditions that affect the heart and the blood vessels
peripheral vascular disease
narrowing of the peripheral bloode vessels (excludes the cerebral and coronary arteries)
coronary heart disease (CHD)
condition in which the arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients are narrowed by fatty deposits, such as cholesterol and triglycerides
angioplasty
a procedure in whicha balloon-tipped catheter is inserted, then inflated, to widen the inner lumen of one or more arteries
risk factors
lifestyle and genetic variables that may lead to disease
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
a recording of the electrical activity of the heart
myocardium
heart muscle
stress electrocardiogram
an exercise test during which the workload is gradually increased (until the subject reaches maximal fatigue) with blood pressure and 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring throughout the test
cholesterol
a waxy substance, technically a steroid alcohol, found only in animal fats and oil; used in making cell membranes, as a building block for some hormones, in the fatty sheath around nerve fibers, and in other necessaray substances
blood lipids (fat)
cholesterol and triglycerides
high-density lipoproteins (HDLs)
cholesterol-transporting molecules in the blood ("good" cholesterol) taht help clear cholesterol from the blood
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
cholesterol-transporting molecules in the blood ("bad" cholesterol) that tend to increase blood cholesterol
very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid-transporting molecules in the blood that tend to increase blood cholesterol
chylomicron
triglyceride-transporting molecules
atherosclerosis
fatty/cholesterol deposits in the walls of the arteries leading to plaque formation
myocardial infarction
heart attact; damage to or death of an area of the heart muscle as a result of an obstructed artery to that area
angina pectoris
chest pain associated with coronary heart disease
reverse cholesterol transport
a process in which HDL molecules attract cholesterol and carry it to the liver, where is is changed to bile and eventually excreted in the stool
triglycerides
fats formed by glycerol and three fatty acids
homocysteine
an amino acid that, when allowed to acumulate in the blood, may lead to plaque formation and blockage of arteries
C-reactive protein (CRP)
a protein whose blood levels increase with inflammation, at times hidden deep in the body. Elevation of this protein is an indicator of potential cardiovascular events
diabetes mellitus
a disease in which the body doesn't produce or utilize insulin properly
insulin
hormone secreted by the pancreas; essential for proper metabolism of blood glucose (sugar) and maintenance of blood glucose level
insulin resistance
the inability of the cells to respond appropriately to insulin
type I diabetes
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Also known as juvenile diabetes
type II diabetes
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), a condition in which insulin is not processed properly. Also known as adult-onset diabetes
glucose intolerance
a condition characterized by slightloy elevated blood glucose levels
syndrome X
an array of metabloic abnormalilties thath contribute to the development of the atherosclerosis triggered by insluin resistance. These conditions include low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, and an increased blood clotting mechanism
metabolic syndrom
syndrome X
blood pressure
a measure of the force exerted against the walls of the vessels by the blood flowing through them
systolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of arteries during forceful contraction (systole) of the heart; higher of the two numbers in blood pressure readings
diastolic blood pressure
pressure exerted by blood against wallsof arteries during relaxation phase (diastole) of the heart; lower of the two numbers in blood pressure readings
hypertension
chronically elevated blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
arrhythmias
irregular heart rhythms
catecholamines
"fight-or-flight" hormones, including epinephrine and norepinephrine