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41 Cards in this Set

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anecdotal evidence
personal stories about specific incidents and experiences
case study
an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
confounding of variables
a condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects
control group
subjects in a study who do notrecieve the special treatment given to the experimental group
correlation
the extent to which two variables are related to each other
correlation coefficient
a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
dependent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
descriptive statistics
statistics that are used to organize and summarize data
double-blind procedure
a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
experiment
a research method in which the investigatormanipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variableas a result
experimental group
the subjects in a study who recieve some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
experimenter bias
a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
extraneous variables
any variables other than the independent variable that seen likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
hypothesis
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
independent variable
in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
inferential statistics
statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conculsions
journal
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
mean
the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
median
the score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
mode
the score that occurs most frequently in a distribution
naturalistic observation
a descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, ovservation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
operational definition
a definition that describes the actions or observationd that will be made to measure or control a variable
participants
the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
placebo effects
the fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they recieve an an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
population
the larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about
random assignment
the constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition
replication
the reptition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
research methods
differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies
response set
a tendency to respond ti questions in a particular way that is unrekated to the content of the questions
sample
the collection of subjects selected for observation in an emprical study
sampling bias
a problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn
social desirability bias
a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
standard deviation
an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
statistical significance
the condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low
statistics
the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data
survey
a descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of subjects' behavior
theory
a system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
variability
the extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean
variables
any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study
meta-analysis
combining the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable's effects