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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
applied psy
the branch of psy concerned with everyday, practical problems
behavior
any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
behaviorism
a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psy should only abservable behavior
clinical psy
the branch of psy concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psy problems and disorders
cognition
the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
critical thinking
the use of cognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desired outcome
culture
the widely shared customs, beliefs values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
empiricism
the premise that knowledge shoulde be acquired through observation
ethnocentrism
the tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways
evolutionary psy
theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations
functionalism
a school of psy based on the belief that psy shouldinvestigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than it structure
humanism
a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, esp their freedom and their potential for personal growth
introspection
careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience
natural selection
principle stating that heritable characteristics that provide a survival reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time
psychiatry
a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
phi phenomenon
the illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession
Gestalt psy
a theoretical orientation based on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
psychoanalytic theory
a theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
psy
the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
SQ3R
a stdy system designed to promote effective reading by means of five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review
stimulus
any detectable input from the environment
structuralism
a school of psy based on the notion that the task of psy is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related
testwiseness
the ability to use the characteristics and format of a cogntitive test to maximize one's score
theory
a system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
unconscious
according to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior