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13 Cards in this Set

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How far did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

New currency
1923:

End of passive resistance meant that German economy was working again

Stresemann introduced new temporary currency, the Rentenmark, which restored confidence

He then introduced proper new currency, the Reichsmark
None
How far did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

The Dawes and Young plans
Key to Germany recovery was financial help from the USA

Dawes plan (1924) involved loan of 800m marks

Young plan (1929) reduced reparations by over 67%

This allowed Germany to enjoy ‘boom’ until 1929
None
How far did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

Improved international relations
Locarno treaty (1925) guaranteed Germany’s borders

1926 Germany joined LofN as permanent council member

Germany became trading power – by 1929 she was the biggest exporter in Europe
None
How far did the Weimar Republic recover under Stresemann?

Stronger coalitions
This period saw more stable governments

In 1928, the SPD, the largest of the democratic parties, joined the coalition government for the first time since 1923

Democracy seemed to be working with centre parties doing well
None
The crisis of 1923

The occupation
German failure to pay full reparations led to French occupying the Ruhr valley in Jan 1923 under terms of TofV

Element of revenge for 1914 – French treated civilians very badly

French would take reparations from source
None
The crisis of 1923

Passive resistance
German policy of peaceful non-cooperation with the French occupation

German workers went on strike
None
The crisis of 1923

Hyperinflation
Already inflation in Germany after war due to shortages forcing up prices

1923: passive resistance forced government to print more money to pay wages – this led to hyperinflation

Mark became worthless

Middle-classes lost their savings
None
The crisis of 1923

Stresemann’s response
1923

Stresemann bravely ended passive resistance (Aug)

Established new temporary currency – Rentenmark (Oct)

Agreed to resume reparations (Nov)

Negotiated Dawes Plan with the USA (Apr 1924)
None
1923

Munich Putsch
The Nazis were furious at ending of passive resistance to French occupation

Hitler took over meeting in Beerhall and held members of Bavarian government at gun-point - declared revolution

Ministers escaped and loyal police opened fire on Nazis when they marched the next day
Was Weimar Germany doomed from the start?

Legacy of WWI
Economic crisis (food shortages)

Disease (Spanish flu)

Psychological damage of defeat

Armistice (stab in the back myth)

New democracy linked with defeat and suffering because Kaiser abdicated and fled Germany on November 10, 1918
None
Was Weimar Germany doomed from the start?

The constitution
Proportional representation – weak coalitions

Freedom of speech allowed enemies of democracy to work to destroy it

Article 48 - dictatorship?
None
Was Weimar Germany doomed from the start?

Impact of the treaty of Versailles
The treaty was known as the Diktat

Politicians who had signed armistice and then signed the treaty became known as the November Criminals

Resented for:

Leaving German minorities in other countries when other people were allowed national self-determination
Disarming Germany when no-one else disarmed
Reparations when Germany was ruined by war
… and war guilt

Germany’s leaders had to accept it though - undermined democracy
None
Was Weimar Germany doomed from the start?

Political extremism
Political extremism flourished as a result of legacy of WWI

Freikorps & Spartacists
Poorly organised Spartacist rising crushed by army & Freikorps in Jan 1919
Kapp Putsch by Right in 1920 after TofV – defeated by general strike in Berlin
None