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68 Cards in this Set

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what is a drug?
any substance that modifies or alters a function of a living organism
Karla emphasised drug handling and how very picky how we get that medication to someone, that we know everything ...
about that drug, pull something out of our pocket about that drug, know all the conditions about the patient, know the lab work for the patient, so its important to be safe doing this
tablets are just medication pressed into a shape. what is enteria medicine?
a med that is coated and won't break down in the stomach but in the small bowel. it breaks down there.
why do we coat a pill?
so it won't inflame the lining of the stomach and wait until it gets to the bowel
capsules are done b/c ...
the taste is so bitter you wouldn't take it otherwise
what is a lozenge?
they disolve in your mouth. also called a troche. these are put on top of your tongue and is absorbed by the muccous membrane. a sublinqual is absorbed UNDER the tongue.
suspension is a liquid that are ..
solutions disolved into a solution with a sweetner. an elixor has glycerin in it.
ointments usually have a petroleum base. what is a tincture?
usually has alcohol base in it. most common is tincture of benzime.
supostitories disolve at body temperature. what is sustained action meds?
wonderful! they reduce how many times you need to take it daily.
what is transdermal? absorbed thru the skin so be careful. why?
any time you touch these, it is being absorbed thru the skin
sprays are aerosols and used as...
nasal or inhalors
what is drug metabolism?
refers to anything that happens to the med from the time it enters to body until all of it products have been eliminated from the body.
what are the 4 steps to drug metablolism?
*************************
absorption
distribution
bio tranformation
excretion by kidneys, skin, tits, GI tract,
what about absorption...what is absorption?
taken into the blood stream. factors how well does drug disolve?
condition site of absorption
route: skin is slow
PO is slow
resp/muccus membrane: fast
IV is fast, immediate,
IM/SubQ depends on site: scar tissue,
what are the conserns with distribution?
moves into various fluids/tissues.
factors:
body size
circulation
degree to which drug binds to protein, binding w/ protein
what happens to a drug that has been has binded w/ a protein?
makes it inactive. so, only meds not binding to proteins work
bio transformation is ...
chemical process that breaks down the drug into substances that the body can remove
factors:
ability of body to modify chemical structure of druges
Liver function
Excretion is drug removed by various body systems.
renal ... pee
pulmonary ... lungs
integumentary ... skin
gastrointestional ...
what is the problem with elderly people and proteins?
careful not to overdose elderly people b/c they cant absorb into any protein meds so you can get an elderly's blood toxic b/c its not being absorbed into any muscle like a younger person
dig this...where on the body is the circulation probably less strong or the slowest?
the extemities like toes and fingers
liver function is huge in this breaking down meds. most are metabolized here by ...
emzymes, ito a water soluable substance that the kidney can then excrete.
is there a limit what our liver can do? yes. so we have to loose over 1/2 the liver function b/f ...
it begins to affect our ability to function correctly. this is where alcohol can mess you up!
the main areas that drugs are eliminated at are ...
bowel, GI tract, the kidney
what things can affect a drugs ability to work, its action on the body, its effectiveness?
age old and young (liver may not be working yet) peds require less drug. so aged and very young haven't got organs up to handle the drug, either not yet developed or no longer very effective any more
weight
gender...more muscle in men, also distribution of water, women have more fat/water so drugs will affect differently
disease process...interupts the kidneys process
route...IV fastest oral shortest
body temp...a fever will speed up metabolism! so a drug will be used up quicker!
circadian rhytms...affect metabolism & urine output
there are the issues of drug interactions...
like drug to drug
antogonistic drugs
shell fish & ?
Vit K and cumidon
so we have to consider what food people are eating when we dispense drugs! Vit K does what? blood clotting. so vit K FOODS have to be considered!
drug to drug interactions...
lots of them... require patient education about stuff, ex.'s are ...
antiboitics and birth control
antagonist drugs fight each other. and there are drugs that work in a synergistic fashion ... meaning ....
like 2 and 2 = 5 !
about synergist drug stuff can be dangerous. how?
**************************
antibiotics and birth control. also, alcohol and narcotics! etc. like people eating in their sleep!
it also makes a difference if there is food in the stomach too. why?
low down absorption. or harmfull effects of drugs on an empty stomach's lining, etc.
what does morphine do? a central nervous system thing. what do you call what it is when a drug does something it ISN'T suppose to do?
a side effect. even when they are side effects, even when they are predictable, whY ? they are harmful! like chemo causes hair to fall out! a reverse reaction is like a cardiac arthymia, or an idiosyncratic reaction would be like an unusual reaction to a medicine! Or a reverse reaction!
**************************
some poeple lack an enzyme that helps get rid of drugs in our body so during anathysethis causes a person to stay on a vent so long b/c ...
the person had a reaction to the anaysthseia
what about allergic reactions? you can take a med for years and then ..
all of a sudden they have a reaction to it! and we never know when an allergic reaction will pop up! don't confuse allergy effect with a side effect!
***************************
itchy? allergies. nausia is side effect.
allergies reactions can go from mild to severe...mild is like hives and rash
anaphylaxis shock is a severe reaction
like a ....
bronchial constriction
edema of mouth/throat
what is a tongue swelling?
call 9 11 thats an reaction to drugs and they are about to stop breathing!
What is pharmecodynamics?
study of drug actions at the biochemical physiological level. This is the ACTION word.
*************************
what is pharmocokinetics?
study of how drugs enter the body, reach the site of action, and how they are removed. This word describes the PROCESS.
****************************
why doe we need to know what pharmecodynamics and pharmocokinetics are?
these 2 things help determine:
route
frequency
these 2 things help the doctor come up with what the dose should be! pharmecodynamics/pharmocokinectics
what is bioavailability? the amount of the drug to produce the effect. An appropiate word when disussing an elderly decreased albumin level or muscle mass. Because they have less muscle and albumn, the bioavalibility is important here.
the proportion of a drug avaliable to produce effects
what is a drug's half life?
length of time taken to go down in half in blood concentration. important b/c a drug w/ a long 1/2 life will hang around a long time than one with a short half life.
a drug half life. think the difference b/t coumadin and heperin
coumadin takes days to get it in and out of your blood stream where heperin gets in and out in hours. important consideration b/f giving it to a patient b/c clotting or not clotting is big
what is the onset of a drug,
what is the peak of a drug?
the onset is when it starts to work
the peak is when its the strongest,
the duration is how long it will last
*************************
what is the serum level of a drug?
serum level is the concentration of the drug in the blood stream
what would be a normal serum level of any drug be in our blood stream?
zero b/c it is not normal for a drug to be in our blood stream
we don't talk about normal levels when we take about serum levels but instead we talk about the theraputic level when discussing a serum levels b/c
we talk about theraputic levels when discussing serums levels, it will say its theraputic range. if its above the theraputic range, it b/c toxic
what is tolerence ?
a decreased response to a drug or dose means that it needs more drug to produce the same effect Ex. pain meds
cumilitive effect is when the drug ....
stays in the body longer than expected. we see this with people who have a disease process where the drug has been used for a while
another drug test terms is peak and trough. this is for IV meds...to see if we are maintaining a theraputic level...and the patient isn't getting better...so what?
the doc may order a peak and trough for the drug being maintained. peak means to draw a blood sample when the drug is at its peak. then the trough blood draw would be during its low point, which is right b/f you give the drug. then the doc you know if we are giving enough meds OR 30 minutes after an IV is given to decide amounts or frequency of the drug is correct!
1970, the term narcodics was changed to controlled substances. called the substance act. 5 levels of scheduled substances...
schedule 1 'hi' potential for abuse...no medical use...most addictive drug...LSD, heroine, grass!
schedule 2 hi potential for abuse. acceptible med use. Ex. codine, morphine, opion, demoral, strong phys & psyco dependence forming thing. you'll see C2 on these drug bottles
Schedule III can cause dependence and less prone to abuse as C2 Ex. norco, vicadin, etc.
Schedule III Ex are like barbituates, anti diareha meds, may cause dependence
Schedule IV may cause mild dependence. Ex. C4 like valium, clorol hydrate,(sleeping med) phnobartical
schedule V can cause a psycol dependence like a cough medicine w/ codine. some cough meds need a prescription to get these.
Drug names:
there are chemical names
there are generic names
the chemical name is the chemical composition, hard to say, long words, like chemical name for aspirin is actocholorblahblah, but the generic name is aspirin but what is the brand name?
Bayor is the brand name.
Lasyic is the brand name. generic and brand name is easier to speak than chemical name.
how long does it take a drug to become avaliable to be sold by other companies?
7 years
pregnancy categories:
5 categories:
A B C D E X
a is no risk
X means it will cause an abnormality
**************************
what is a teratogen drug?
it is harmful to a fetus
where do drugs come from?
animals...hormones from pee
plants....foxglue...aspinin from willow bark
minerals...iron
synthetic...dna recovenenant
to stimulate something.
there are 6 rights concerning drugs. what are they?
*************************
right patient
right dose
right documentation
right drug
right route
right time
lets look at abreviations
ac b/f b/feast
ab lib
bid once a day
c
cap
gtt dose
h
IV
NS
OD r eye
Ou both eyes
Os l eye
p after
pc after meals
pp post prandial brandy after meals
PD & qid & qod not used anymore
qs sufficient quanity
s w/ out
ss 1/2
susp suspension
ung ointment
tinc means ointment
Classifications:
old terms
U for unit
IU international unit
QD daily
don't use these
QOD
what else?
***********************
never use a trailing zero
Ex. 2.0 WRONG wrong wrong
Ex. O.3 RIGHT
trailing zeros can be read as 20 and not 2 and a leading zero means .2 and not 2, a safety thing .
always circle a math anser or square it or something or it will be marked wrong
****************************
other things we don't abbreviate. morphine and magnesium are written out
TIW 3 times weekly dont use it
cc don't use this use mL
not ug its mcg
so now classifictations
Analgesic what is it does?
action relieves pain
use post-op trauma
by the way...pain is always what the patient says!
analgesic is for pain from otc meds like aspirin to controlled analgesics, anticoagulation up to morphine based analygesics for cancer patients. central nervous system thing so watch respiriations b/c it suppresses it.
sedatives ... action: causes sedation like for insomnia or pre procedure. what else
not just a sleeping med. given as a pre op stuff
what is an antipyretic?
decreases fever
use is infection, illnesses
what does an antiacid do?
decreases stomach acid...ulcers
tums, malox,
laxatives...action stimulate the bowel movement. what are ex. and how they work?
milk of magnesia is a hypertonic
what does hypertonic mean?
more solute pulls fluid from walls of bowel, we get a distintion,
what about softeners? tiny red capsuls?
they are stool softeners
contain oil
what is the problem with narcotics?
constipation
careful w/ narcodics b/c they get so constipated
a stool softener isn't a narcodic and is better laxatives.
anti diaherha meds. what the danger of diaherrha, dehydration esp. with elderly. so we have to be carefull w/ antidiaherra meds.
anti inflamatory drugs

Ex ive profin generic name, advil is trade name. other examples?
anti flamitory are for joint pain/disease...degenerative joint disease.
anti inflamatory drugs

Ex ive profin generic name, advil is trade name. other examples?
anti flamitory are for joint pain/disease...degenerative joint disease.