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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the cortical structures of the limbic system (3)
Hippocampal Formation
Cingulate Gyrus
prefrontal and orbital cortex
List the nuclear groups of the limbic system (6)
1. amygdala
2. anterior nuclear group of thalamus
3. dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
4. septal nucleus
5. habenular nucleus
6. mamillary nucleus
1. Where is the cingulum found?
2. What does it run between?
3. Is it uni or bi directional?
1. Underneath the cingulate gyrus
2. Connects the cingulate gyrus and the parahippocampal gyrus
3. Bidirectional
Once the parahippocampal gyrus receives input from the cingulum it sends out two fiber pathways. What are their names and where do they run?
1. Lateral Perforant - to granule cells of dentate gyrus
2. Alvear (medial perforant) - pyramidal cells of hippocampus
Axons of the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus leave via the alveus to enter the _________.
The fornix runs to the _____________, which run to the septal nuclei and the anterior thalamic nucleus.
mammillary bodies
What type of fibers does the fornix carry from the septal nuclei back to the hypothalamus?
This is mediated via _______?
via pyramidal cell dendrites
Where does the mammillotegmental tract run?
From the mammillary bodies to the reticular formation of the midbrain
What are the four parts of the hippocampal formation?
1. Parahippocampal gyrus
2. subiculum
3. hippocampal gyrus
4. dentate gyrus
How many cell layers are in the dentate nucleus?
3 layers
What are the three efferent pathways of the hippocampus?
1. pyramidal cells send to alveus and enter the FORNIX
2. pyramidal cells send to subiculum and parahippocampal gyrus
3. subiculum to parahippocampal gyrus and alveus (then to fornix)
Outflow via the fornix goes to the ________ and ________.
What happens after that?
hypothalamus and septal nuclei
* Hypothalamus sends fibers to RF, which in turn sends them back to hippocampus.
*Septal nuclei project cholinergic fibers back to the hypothalamus.
Where does outflow of the parahippocampal gyrus go?
to the cingulate gyrus and it's associated cortices (periorbital and prefrontal)
The _________ is found directly under the uncus.
One major outflow pathway from the amygdala is the _________.It runs to the nucleus accumbens, septal nuclei, preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, caudate and putamen.
Stria Terminalis
Which portion of the thalamus has reciprocal connections with the amygdala?
Where else does this structure project?
dorsomedial nucleus; also projects to prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices.
What are the three major pathways out of the limbic brain?
1. mammillotegmental tract
2. MFB
3. habenulo-interpenducular tract
What are the behavioral changes observed in Kluver-Bucy syndrome? (5)
1. tame
2. oral exploration
3. hyperphagic
4. hypersexual
5. lack fear
What type of memory involves the hippocampus?
recent memory (aquisition of new skills and facts)
The neocorticex-hippocampus-neocortex loop is essential for ?
long term memory consolidation
Amygdala neurons have a very low seizure threshold. A seizure starting in the amygdala can be benign or ___________?
antisocial (often results in murder or other violent activities). As it is an ictal event the individual has no memory of the incident
What are the two general pleasure centers in the brain?
septal nuclei
lateral hypothalamus
Which limbic system structures (2) are responsible for attaching emotional quality or meaning to sensory signals?
Cingulate Gyrus (Cingulum)
Which limbic structure is responsible for "regulating" personality or awareness of self and maintaining social behavior?
frontal cortex
Why is the connection between the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the frontal lobe clinically important?
This loop is often surgically cut to prevent seizures (frontal lobotomy). Once cut patients presented with other problems such as indifference and micturating in "any old place"
A process by which new information is aquired by the nervous system is known as _________________.
A process by which information is encoded, stored and retrieved is known as ______________.
__________is the process of losing access to stored information, which may be related to either ______________ or _______________.
recall or retention
___________ is a pathologic condition in which memory formation, retention or recall is disrupted.
__________ involves distinctly attending to incoming sensory information and making associations with previously learned information.
______________ is making information available for storage; transferring from short to long term memory
_____________ is the physiological processes and brain locations involved in maintaining memory.
What are the two types of human memory? Give an example of each.
Declarative (conscious)
- studing for this exam
Procedural (unconscious)
- riding a bike
What is the difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia?
anterograde amnesia is an inability to form new memories
retrograde amnesia is inability to retrieve long term memories
The ________________ is a mechanism of short term energy storage. it involves a stimulus that is continuously propagated within a loop of neurons.
reverberating circuit
Neural plasticity is a mechanism of __________ storage. What two mechanisms explain this?
long term
1. change in the efficacy of neurotransmission
2. change in growth or re-ordering of contacts
Define long term potentiation
a model for long term memory storage. certain patterns of synaptic activity can produce long lasting changes in synaptic strength.
What is the contribution of the amygdala to memory?
it contributes an emotional component to memory BUT DOES NOT PARTICIPATE IN THE STORAGE OF FACTS
How would a bilateral lesion of the hippocampus effect memory?
would result in profound anterograde amnesia
What is the contribution of the hippocampus to memory?
Plays a role in consolidation but not storage of new memories
Which bilateral lesion is more profound in regards to anterograde amnesia: hippocampus or entorhinal complex?
entorhinal complex
Bilateral damage to ____________ results in an inability to form new memories or recall memories.
diencephalon (thalamus, mammillary bodies)
___________ is a term used to refer to a bodily state, whereas __________ refers to the conscious sensation of this state.
Define mood
a sustained emotional state
_________ refers to a person's immediate or momentary emotional state.
affect (what we observe)
What are the six universal emotions?
A volitional (fake) smile is known as a _________ smile, whereas an emotional smile is known as a _________ smile.
pyramidal smile
Duchenne smile
A left forebrain lesion results in emotional paralysis. Which type of smile would still be "normal?"
Pyramidal Smile (the Duchenne smile is not symmetrical)
Which limbic structure has neuroendocrine, autonomic and somatic motor control? (this is a huge influence)
damage to the ___________ will result in impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions. What is odd about this lesion?
Can still recognize unique identity of faces
Which limbic structure has been shown to atrophy in depression?
What do these structures have in common?
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
Orbitofrontal Cortex
Areas of the brain influenced by sexual arousal
deficits in planning, lack of restraint, impulsiveness, hypersexuality and hyperactivity are all components of __________ syndrome.
disinhibition syndrome
Which hemisphere seems to be more important for the comprehension and expression of emotions?
Which hemisphere is more involved with positive emotions?
Patients with _________ hemisphere lesions are described as unduly cheerful. Patients with ____ hemisphere lesions have a higher incidence of depression
What is aprosody and what is a common cause?
loss of emotional modulation of speech, often caused by damage to the right cortex.
1. Witzelsucht
2. Moria
1. pathological (addictive) telling of innapropriate jokes
2. silly, euphoric behavior