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67 Cards in this Set

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What type of muscle tissue is voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton?
striated (or skeletal) muscle
band of fibrous tissue that attaches muscle to bone:
tendon
flexible band of tissue that connects bone to bone:
ligament
This disability score is used to evaluate patients with
multiple sclerosis:
Kurtzke
a dynamometer is used to measure:
muscle strength
What does the RICE treatment for injuries consist of?
rest,
ice,
compression,
elevation
NAME THE TEST:
with the patient supine, the thigh and knee are flexed and the external malleolus is placed over the patella of the opposite leg; the knee is depressed, and if pain is produced thereby arthritis of the hip is indicated:
Patrick's test
or
fabere sign
How was 'fabere' sign named?
Patrick called this test fabere sign, from the initial letters of movements that are necessary to elicit it, namely, flexion, abduction, external rotation, extension.
How are reflexes transcribed?
using 'grade' and arabic numerals followed (or preceded) by a plus (+) sign
Which grade of reflexes is considered normal?
+2 or 2+
Name the 3 types of muscle:
smooth (involuntary, not striated),
cardiac (involuntary, lightly striated),
skeletal (voluntary, heavily striated)
In muscles, individual muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called:
fascicles
Name the 3 layers of connective tissue in skeletal muscles:
endomysium,
perimysium,
epimysium
Name the layer that:
is around each individual muscle fiber:
endomysium
Name the layer that:
is around fascicles of muscle fibers:
perimysium
Name the layer that is:
around entire muscle; forms the innermost layer of the deep fascia:
epimysium
The point at which a nerve fiber contacts a muscle cell is called:
neuromuscular junction
What is the name of the neuromuscular transmitter that is released from the neuron to stimulate the muscle?
acetylcholine (ACh)
A point of communication between cells is known as:
a synapse
The tiny space between the cells across which the neurotransmitter must cross is called:
the synaptic cleft
the muscle cell's receiving membrane is known as:
the motor end plate
Which property of muscle tissue is described as the ability to transmit electrical current along the plasma membranes:
excitability
The spreading wave of electrical stimulation that spreads along the muscle cell membrane is known as:
the action potential;
because it calls the muscle cell into action
What are 4 important properties of muscle tissue?
excitability,
contractility,
extensibility,
elasticity
A muscle fiber's capacity to undergo shortening and to change its shape, becoming thicker, is called:
contractility
What are the 2 proteins in muscle filaments that give muscle the striated appearance?
actin (thin & light),
myosin (thick & dark),

they alternate to give that striated appearance
A contracting subunit of skeletal muscle is known as:
a sarcomere
When a muscle is at rest, 2 additional proteins block the sites on actin filaments where cross-bridges can form. What are these 2 proteins?
troponin,
tropomyosin
What substance is necessary for the cross-bridges to form so that the muscle can contract?
calcium
Where is calcium stored?
in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) & is released when the nerve stimulates the muscle
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
What role does ATP play in muscle contraction?
it provides the energy for the metabolic activities required within the cell --moves the myosin heads back into position for another 'powerstroke'
What mineral is needed to allow myosin and actin to interact?
calcium
What chemical supplies the energy required for all muscle contractions?
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
What compounds are stored in muscles that supply oxygen, energy, or nutrition for the muscle cells?
myoglobin,
glycogen,
creatine phosphate
What compound stores additional oxygen and is similar to the blood's hemoglobin but is located specifically in muscle cells?
myoglobin
What compound stores additional glucose for muscle cells?
glycogen
What compound is similar to ATP, in that it has a high energy bond that releases energy when it is broken, & is used to make ATP when the muscle cell has used up its ATP?
creatine phosphate
When muscles work without oxygen, a compound is produced that causes muscles to fatigue. What is the name of this compound?
lactic acid
What are the 3 components of exercise?
stretching,
aerobics,
resistance training
An exercise program with all 3 methods of stretching, aerobics, and resistance training, with periods of warm-ups and cool-downs between is known as:
cross-training, or
interval training
Name the 4 functions of muscle tissue:
movement,
posture,
joint stability,
heat production
What is the name of the specialized muscle contraction which does not move the body but holds muscles in position?
tonic contraction
(used in posture)
The fleshy part of the muscle is called:
the belly
the layer of connective tissue that is continuous with the epimysium and surrounds and separates the muscles:
fascia
connective tissue sheath the project inward dividing the muscle into compartments:
epimysium
Name the type of muscle attachment:
tendons are used to attach muscles to the periosteum of the bone:
indirect attachment
Name the type of muscle attachment:
direct fusion of fibers from the epimysium with the periosteum of the bone:
direct attachment
Name the type of muscle attachment:
attachment to a stationary bone:
origin
Name the type of muscle attachment:
attachment to a bone that will be moved when the muscle contracts:
insertion
A muscle's partially contracted state that is normal even when the muscle is not in use is known as:
muscle tone
(tonus)
a white, flattened or ribbonlike tendinous expansion, usually serving to connect a muscle with the parts that it moves, and is a term formerly applied to certain fasciae.
aponeurosis
Muscles in movement function in pairs. What is the name of the muslce that provides the movement?
primary mover
Muscles in movement function in pairs. What is the name of the muslce that provides the opposite movement?
the antagonist
The helping muscle that stabilized the body parts is called:
the synergist
Name 4 facial muscles that are used in expression:
obicularis oculi,
levator palpebrae superioris,
obicularis oris,
buccinator
Name 2 muscles for mastication that are attached to the mandible:
temporalis (superior to the ear),
masseter (at the angle of the jaw)
What are the 2 muscle groups of the tongue?
intrinsic muscles, &
extrinsic muscles
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
vastus
huge
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
deltoid
triangular
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
rhomboid
equal and parallel sides
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
latissimus
wide
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
teres
round
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
trapezius
4-sided figure with 2 sides parallel
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
orbicularis
circular
GIVE THE MEANING OF THE FOLLOWING NAMES FOR MUSCLES:
pectoralis
chest
What term refers to a muscle that is made up of several bundles of muscle fibers each with its own origin and insertion?
heads
ex: biceps, triceps, quadriceps