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20 Cards in this Set

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URI (common cold)
S&S- Nasal congestion & discharge, coughing, high fever, malaise.

Eti- Almost 200 viruses & mycoplasma

Dx- Nasal or sputum discharge

Tx- pallalitive, hycodan, robitussin, guafenesin
Influenza

viral inflammation of the upper & lower respiratory tract mucous membranes
S&S-Protracted cough, high fever, HA, sore throat, malaise, body aches, weakness

Eti-Virus, influenza A, B, C etc.

Dx-Throat or sputum culture

Tx-Symptomatic, vaccine is useless after disease is established
Epistaxis (nosebleed)
S&S- Hemorrhage from nose

Eti- Cold, infection, trauma, underlying disease (HTN, Leukemia)

Dx-Visual

Tx-Constant direct pressure, cartarize if persistent with silver nitrate
Laryngitis

Inflammation of larynx including vocal cords
S&S-Hoarsness causing aphonia, fever, malaise, painful throat, dysphagia

Eti-Viral or bacterial

Dx-Laryngoscopic exam

Tx-Palliative, ABX
Tonsillitis

Acute inflammation of the tonsils
S&S-Tonsils inflammed, swollen with yellowish exudates

Eti-Most common bacteria group-A beta-hemolytic streptococci

Dx-Throat culture

Tx-ABX
Sinusitis

Acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses
S&S-HA, dacial/dental pain, greenish-yellowish nasal drainage, acute=4-6 weeks

Eti-Sinus x-ray

Dx-ABX, tavist, benadryl, zyrtec, fexofenadine, allergy testing, sinusotomy

Deviated septum, nasal polyps

Tx-
Pharyngitis

Acute or chronic inflammation of the pharynx
S&S-Inflammation of the tonsils, uvuls & palate, dry sore throat, sensation of lump in throat

Eti-Usually viral, can be secondary bacterial

Dx-Visual

Tx-Palliative, ABX
Epiglottitis

Inflammation of the epiglottis
S&S-Drooling, stridor, fever, respiratory distress caused by obstruction

Eti-Most common bacteria haemophilus influenza (Hib)

Dx-X-ray of neck, CBC

Tx-ABX, intubation, prednisone
Cystic fibrosis

Chronic dysfunction of the exocrine glands
S&S-Copius thick & sticky mucous, dry cough, dyspnea, large bulky BM's

Eti-Inherited disorder

Dx-Family hx, PFT's, chest x-ray, stool studies

Tx-Guafenesin, brethine
Bronchitis

Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
S&S-Deep, persistent, productive cough, yellow/grey sputum, SOB, wheezing

Eti-Usually viral

Dx-Chest x-ray, PFT's

Tx-Guafenesin, albuterol, theophylline, alupent, servent, brethine
Emphysema

Destructive changes in the alveolar walls & irreversible enlargement of the alveolar air spaces
S&S-Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, SOB, barrel chest, bluish around mouth

Eti-Smoking, air pollution, coal dust

Dx-PFT's, chest x-ray, blood gases (ABG)

Tx-Bronchodialators, oxygen
Pneumonia

General term applied to several types of inflammation of the lungs
S&S-Cough, SOB even at rest, chills, sweating, chest pain, cyanosis, blood in sputum

Eti-Viral or bacterial

Dx-X-ray, sputum culture

Tx-ABX, bed rest, increase fluids
Asthma

Bronchial tubes are hyperactive & hypersensitive which leads to bronchial airway obstruction, leading cause of absenteeism in school kids
S&S-Wheezing, productive cough & dyspnea that can lead to hospitalization

Eti-Allergic reaction, unknown

Dx-Chest x-ray, PFT's

Tx-Bronchodialators, prednisone, flovent, azmacort, montelukast sodium, zafirlukast
Croup

Acute respiratory syndrome in children & infants. Viral illness, no cure, only treat symptoms, affects children 6 months- 3 years, usually during late fall, winter & early spring
S&S-Stridor, SOB, high pitch cough

Eti-Viral

Dx-X-ray (steeple sign), auscultation, throat culture

Tx-Robitussin, nebulizer
Infectious Mononucleosis

Viral infection that affects the respiratory system, liver, lymphatic system
S&S-Malaise, anorexia, fever, chill, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, coated tonsils

Eti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

Dx-EBV blood test

Tx-Supportive, common in college/military
Pulmonary Embolism

Blood clot occludes in an artery in the pulmonary circulation
S&S-Dyspnea, tachypnea, chest pain, hemoptysis

Eti-Clot broken loose from a deep vein in the leg, venous stasis, predisposition to clot formation

Dx-Ausculatation reveals rales & plural rub, CT

Tx-Oxygen, anticoagulants
Pleurisy

Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs
S&S-Sharp, needle like pain which increases with inspiration & coughing, inspirations shallow/rapid

Eti-Secondary to infections

Dx-Auscultation=pleural rub, chest x-ray

Tx-ABX, deep breathing exercise
Tuberculosis

Chronic, acute or subacute infection of lungs
S&S-Asymptomatic, productive cough, hemoptysis, fever, night sweats

Eti-Bacteria, mycobacterium tuberculosis, increase immigration & AIDS has caused numbers to rise in the U.S.

Dx-Mantoux test, PPD, chest x-ray, sputum culture

Tx-INH, isoniazid
Lung Cancer

Most common type of cancer death worldwide for both men & women
S&S-dry or productive cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, chest pain

Eti-Hx of smoking (87%), malignant neoplasm

Dx-X-ray, biopsy

Tx-Surgery, chemo/radiation, prognosis is poor due to late detection & early detection has not proven improved survival
COPD
Encompasses bronchitis, bronchiectasis, asthma, emphysema, & pneumoconiosis