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168 Cards in this Set

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Name the 2 layers of skin:
epidermis,
dermis
Name the 2 layers of epidermis:
stratum corneum (outermost layer);
stratum basale, aka: stratum germinativum (closest to the dermis)
Where is melanin produced?
in melanocytes located in the deepest layer of epidermis (stratum basale)
What is the so-called "true skin"?
the dermis
What is the name for the portions of the dermis that extend upward into the epidermis at the dermal-epidermal junction that form the ridges & grooves that make up fingerprints & footprints?
dermal papillae
What is the name of the layer of skin that the dermis rests on, and is also known as the "hypodermis" or "superficial facia?"
subcutaneous layer
Where is the subcutaneous thickest?
abdomen
Where is the subcutaneous thinnest?
eyelids
What is the composition of the subcutaneous layer?
loose connective tissue & large amounts of adipose (fat) tissue
What is the name of the "cheesy lining" produced by the sebaceous glands, that newborns are covered in at birth?
vernix caseosa
What is the name of the modified sebaceous glands associated with the eyelids and produce secretion that lubricates the eyes called?
meibomian glands
A mixture of dried sebum and keratin that collects at the opening of a sebaceous gland is called a:
blackhead, or comedo
If a mixture of dried sebum and keratin at the opening of a sebaceous gland gets trapped and forms a sac, it is called:
a sebaceous cyst
What type of gland is this:
an ordinary, or simple, sweat gland (glandula sudorifera); they are of the merocrine type, unbranched, coiled, tubular glands that are distributed over almost all of the body surface, and promote cooling by evaporation of their secretion.
eccrine gland
partly secreting; denoting that type of glandular secretion in which the secreting cell remains intact throughout the process of formation and discharge of the secretory products; as in the salivary and pancreatic glands:
merocrine
What type of gland is this?
a type of large, branched, specialized sweat gland that empties into the upper portion of a hair follicle instead of directly onto the skin surface; found only on certain areas of the body, such as around the anus and in the axilla; after puberty they produce a viscous secretion that is acted on by bacteria to produce a characteristic acrid odor.
apocrine gland
Name 3 types of glands associated with the skin that are modified sweat glands:
ceruminous glands (in the ear canals);
ciliary glands (at the edges of the eyelids);
and the mammary glands
What kind of epithelium makes up the sweat glands?
simple cuboidal epithelium
clusters of cells at the base of the follicle necessary for hair growth:
hair papilla (singular; papillae pl.)
Extremely fine, soft hair of a newborn:
lanugo
tiny muscle at the base of the dermal papilla that contracts when frightened or cold, producing "goose bumps":
arrector pili
What is the name of the receptor in the skin that responds to light touch?
Meissner corpuscle
What is the name of the receptor in the skin that respond to deep pressure?
Pacini corpuscle, or
pancinian corpuscle
a type of large, ovoid, rapidly adapting, encapsulated nerve ending sensitive to pressure, touch, and vibration. The most complicated of the nerve endings, its core contains the nonmyelinated nerve terminal and its Schwann cells, surrounded by concentric layers of modified fibroblasts, in cross-section resembling a sliced onion. It is found in the skin and deeper tissues, particularly in the palms, soles, digits of hands and feet, joints, external genitalia, and breasts.
Pacini corpuscle, or pancinian corpuscle.
Called also Vater-Pacini corpuscle
a rapidly adapting encapsulated nerve ending found in the dermal ridges of glabrous skin, particularly of the digits, lips, nipples, and genitalia. It is specialized for tactile discrimination:
Meissner corpuscle;
called also tactile corpuscle of Meissner.
encapsulated nerve ending,a sensory nerve ending characterized by a fibrous capsule of varying thickness that is continuous with the endoneurium is called a ?
end-bulb
a type of small, spherical, encapsulated nerve ending found particularly in the dermis, lips, mouth, and conjunctiva; thought to function as a rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor.
(detects vibration)
Krause's end-bulb
the type of neural receptor with the simplest form, in which the peripheral nerve fiber divides into fine branches that terminate freely in connective tissue or epithelium:
free nerve ending
What is the name of the transdermal drug delivery that is based on the principle that like charges repel, and uses an electrical current to "push" the ionic drugs into the system?
iontophoresis
What is the term for "paleness of the skin?"
pallor
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
discolored flat spot that is neither raised nor depressed, as are freckles, age spots, or measles:
macule
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
a less than 1 cm in diameter, solid elevation of the skin, as in a pimple
papule
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
nodule: a small knot or node; used in anatomical nomenclature as a general term to designate a comparatively minute collection of tissue
nodule
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
pus-filled small elevation of the skin, such as a whitehead, acne
pustule
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
a small collection of clear fluid, as in chickenpox
vesicle
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
a large blister:
bulla
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
a superficial, solid, elevated skin lesion equal to or greater than 1.0 cm (0.5 cm according to some authorities) in diameter.
plaque
NAME THE TYPE OF SKIN LESION:
a formed outer layer, especially an outer layer of solid matter formed by the drying of a bodily exudate or secretion; a scab:
crust
hypertrophy of the epidermis, with thickening and toughening of the skin to give it a leathery appearance, and exaggeration of its normal markings; this is caused by prolonged rubbing or scratching and may be on seemingly normal skin or on skin that has a pruritic disorder:
lichenification
a sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar due to formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair.
keloid
a crack-like sore or groove; any cleft, groove, or sulcus, normal or otherwise:
fissure
(as in an anal fissure)
An open sore of the skin or mucous gland; a local defect, or excavation, of the surface of an organ or tissue, which is produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue:
ulcer
a gradual breakdown or shallow ulceration of the skin, involving only the epidermis; it usually heals without scarring.
erosion
A noninflammatory lesion of acne vulgaris and a few other conditions, consisting of a plug of keratin and sebum within the dilated orifice of a hair follicle; it usually contains bacteria, especially Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, or Malassezia furfur.
comedo (singular);
comedone (plural)
an abnormal closed cavity in the body, lined by epithelium and containing a liquid or semisolid material. Some cavities that are not lined by epithelium and should properly be called pseudocysts are commonly referred to as cysts
cyst
a bit of dry, horny epidermis, usually ready to be sloughed; called also squama and squame:
scale
(dandruff, psoriasis)
the typical lesion of urticaria, the dermal evidence of allergy; it is a smooth, slightly elevated, discolored area on the body surface, often accompanied by severe itching. In sensitive persons it may also be provoked by mechanical irritation of the skin
wheal;
Called also hive and welt.
the process by which blood is released to surrounding tissues from a trauma to the skin is called:
extravasation
Pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin from ruptured capillaries are called:
petechiae
this is an area of any size of hemorrhage under the skin:
a contusion
a 3 cm in diameter or larger area of hemorrhage under the skin is called:
an ecchymosis
an elevated, localized collection of blood under the skin is called:
a hematoma
an abnormal protruding growth from a mucous membrane; originally applied only to such growths on the mucous membrane of the nose, the term is now applied to ones on any mucous membrane
polyp
eccym/o-
blood in the tissues
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
overproduction of sebum, particularly on the face and scalp, that occurs at a time other than puberty:
seborrhea
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a chronic type characterized by pruritus, erythema, dry, moist, or greasy scaling, and yellow crusted patches on the face, scalp, or elsewhere on the body; on the scalp the patches start out small but slowly spread to involve the entire scalp, and there is exfoliation of many dry scales (dandruff). The etiology is unknown. May appear after illness or stress or caused by environmental or food allergies:
seborrheic dermatitis;
also called seborrheic eczema
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
seborrheic dermatitis in infants is called:
cradle cap
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
topical reaction to physical contact with a substance that is an allergen or irritant:
contact dermatitis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any of various pruritic, papulovesicular types of dermatitis occurring as reactions to endogenous or exogenous agents. In acute types there may be erythema, edema, inflammatory infiltrates in the dermis, vesiculation, crusting, and scaling. In chronic types there may be lichenification, skin thickening, signs of excoriation; and areas of hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation.
eczema
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
acute allergic reaction where red wheals develop on the skin:
urticaria (hives)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any of a group of common chronic, squamous dermatoses with variable symptoms and courses; some are inherited. Principal histological findings are Munro microabscesses and spongiform pustules; also seen are rounded, circumscribed, erythematous, dry, scaling patches of various sizes, covered by gray, silvery, or white, umbilicated, lamellar scales. (could possibly be autoimmune disorder, but etiology unknown):
psoriasis;

The most common sites are extensor surfaces, nails, scalp, genitalia, and the lumbosacral region:
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a chronic skin disease in which sebaceous glands secrete excessive amounts of sebum and is characterized by persistent erythema and often by telangiectasia with acute episodes of edema, papules, and pustules;
rosacea;
acne rosacea
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
the most common type of phymatous rosacea, a severe facial condition with sebaceous hyperplasia, seen most often in men, involving the lower half of the nose and sometimes adjacent cheek areas.
rhinophyma
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
the usual form of acne, a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units; lesions usually occur on the face, chest, and back. The inflamed glands may form small papules (which may surround comedones to give them black centers), or they may form pustules or cysts:
acne vulgaris
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
caused by the varicella-zoster virus, and is an acute inflammatory, dermatomal eruption of extremely painful vesicles:
herpes zoster;
shingles
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a common, contagious, superficial skin infection characterized by pustular lesions that rupture and form thick yellow crusts on the skin; caused by either staphylococcus or Streptococcus aureus:
impetigo
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a localized, pus-containing pocket caused by a bacterial infection, usually Staphylococcus aureus:
an abscess
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a localized abscess around a hair follicle that causes the skin to be elevated, painful, and red:
furuncle; (or boil)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
large furuncles with connecting channels through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface:
carbuncle
-phyma
tumor, growth
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a spreading infection & inflammation of the connective tissue of the skin and muscle resulting when bacteria enters the skin through a cut or lesion:
cellulitis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any superficial fungal infection caused by a dermatophyte and involving the stratum corneum of the skin, hair, and nails; this includes onychomycosis and various forms of tinea.
dermatophytosis;
dermatophytoses
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a cpntagious infection usually found in children that is characterized by round, gray, scaly lesions on the scalp:
tinea capitis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
characterized by round, ringed, and scaly vesicles, after coming in contact with an infected animal:
tinea corporis (ringworm)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
an infection of toenails or fingernails where the nails become hypertrophic or thickened, brittle, and lusterless:
tinea unguium
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
also known as athlete's foot:
tinea pedis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
also known as jock itch:
tinea cruris
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
infestation of lice and their eggs in the scalp, hair, eyelashes, or pubic hair:
pediculitis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
infestation of parasitic mites that tunnel under the skin and produce vesicles & are pruritic:
scabies
NOTE SPELLING OF:
term that means "itching"
pruritus;
pruritic
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
raised, irregular, rough areas of skin that are dry and feel like sandpaper & develop mainly in middle-aged persons in areas chronically exposed to the sun; may develop into squamous cell carcinoma:
actinic keratosis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a benign growth originating in the epidermis characterized by brown papules or plaques and appearing as though they were pasted on the skin:
seborrheic keratosis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
the most common type of skin cancer that arises from the basal layer of the epidermis, and most often appears as a raised, pearly bump;--is slow growing and does not metastasize:
basal cell carcinoma
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
the 2nd most common type of skin cancer that arises from the flat squamous cells of the outer part of the epidermis, & most often appears as a red bump or ulcer & grows slowly:
squamous cell carcinoma
actin/o-
rays of the sun
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
the most serious of the 3 types of skin cancer, arising from the epidermal melanocytes & is characterized by solitary lesions that grows quickly & metastasizes to other parts of the body:
malignant melanoma
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a rare inherited condition characterized by the inability of melanocytes to produce melanin, resulting in pale skin, white hair, and generally pink or pale blue eyes:
albinism
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
patches of pale, irregular skin interspersed with regular skin from an autoimmune response that slowly destroys melanocytes in ever-enlarging patches of skin:
vitilage
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
congenital growth composed of a mass of superficial and dilated blood vessels (that usually disappear by age 3):
hemangiomas
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
benign skin lesion that is present at birth and comes in a variety of colors and shapes:
nevus, pl. nevi
(birthmark)

note spelling: NOT nevis-NEVUS
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
darkly pigmented nevi that can be flat or round and elevated & often contain hairs:
moles
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
slightly elevated, red-to-purple vascular nevi with distinct, but irregularly shaped margins & and resemble a wine stain:
port-wine stains
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
small, soft, flesh-colored growth of epidermis and dermis that protrudes outwardly & comes in a variety of shapes: irregular mounds, globes, flaps, or polyps with round tops on slender stalks:
papilloma;
also known as skin tags
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
benign, pigmented, flat macule that occurs after sun exposure, but may fade over time if exposure to sun stopped:
freckle
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any of various skin diseases characterized by fine, branny scales:
pityriasis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any in a group of cutaneous disorders characterized by increased or aberrant keratinization, resulting in noninflammatory scaling of the skin. Metaphors sometimes used to describe the appearance or texture of the skin in various types or stages of ichthyosis include alligator, collodion, crocodile, fish, and porcupine skin
ichthyosis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a benign, discrete, hyperpigmented macule on chronically sun-exposed skin such as the backs of the hands or the forehead, usually seen in elderly, light-skinned adults. Called also age spot, liver spot, senile l., and l. senilis.
solar lentigo
(pl. solar lentigines)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
another name for tinea versicolor:
pityriasis versicolor

(this may be the fungal pityriasis that was listed in the MTEC notes)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
inflammation of a follicle or follicles; usually referring to hair follicles, but sometimes to follicles of other kinds.
folliculitis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a hardening and thickening of the stratum corneum of the skin of the toes, caused by friction and pressure from poorly fitting shoes or hose; it forms a conical mass pointing down into the dermis, producing pain and inflammation:
corn
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
localized hyperplasia of the stratum corneum due to pressure or friction. Called also callosity, keratoma, and tyloma. See also hyperkeratosis (def. 1) and keratoderma.
callus

(NOTE: a corn is a callus
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a type of small, smooth, flat, usually skin colored wart seen on the hands, arms, or face in children and less often in adults, caused by a human papillomavirus; they sometimes occur in large numbers and in linear distributions.
verruca plana, verruca plana juvenilis
Called also flat or plane wart. See also epidermodysplasia verruciformis.
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a painful wart on the sole, usually transmitted by a human papillomavirus. Called also verruca plantaris.
plantar wart
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
another name for a wart
verruca, pl. verrucae
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
infection of the skin around the nail that can be caused by either bacteria or fungi:
paronychia
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
acute paronychia is caused by:
bacteria
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
chronic paronychia is caused by:
fungi
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
chronic hair loss:
alopecia
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
autoimmune disorder that causes the skin and internal organs to become progressively hardened due to deposits of collagen
scleroderma

(note spelling)
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
necrosis of the tissue with subsequent bacterial invasion and decay is known as:
gangrene,
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
gray-to-black discoloration of the skin in areas where the tissue has died:
necrosis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a type of purple to red, irregularly shaped hemorrhages beneath the skin of the upper and lower limbs of elderly persons.
purpura senalis
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
any of a group of conditions characterized by ecchymoses or other small hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes, or serosal surfaces; causes include blood disorders, vascular abnormalities, and trauma
purpura
NAME THE TYPE OF BURN:
involves only the epidermis, causing erythema, pain, & swelling, but not blisters:
1st degree burn;
(superficial injury)
NAME THE TYPE OF BURN:
involves the epidermis and the upper layer of the dermis, causing erythema, pain, swelling, and small blisters or larger bullae:
2nd degree burn;
or partial-thickness burn
NAME THE TYPE OF BURN:
involves the epidermis and entire dermis, and subcutaneous tissue, and maybe even muscle layer may be involved, & if nerves in the dermis are destroyed, there is no sensation of pain:
3rd degree burn;
or full-thickness burn
a thick, crust scab or necrotic tissue that forms in a 3rd degree burn is called:
an eschar

(must be removed to prevent infection)
cancer classification to describe level of melanoma invasion of the skin from the epidermis:
Clark level

lower case "level" and use roman numerals I through IV
NAME THE SKIN DISORDER:
disruption of the intercellular connections between keratinocytes of the epidermis. A primary type is caused by lysis of intercellular cement substance, and secondary types occur with conditions such as types of pemphigus or dyskeratosis. There is often secondary disruption of desmosomes, as well as a defined sequence of cellular degenerative events.
acantholysis
NAME THE SKIN DISORDER:
any in a group of chronic, relapsing, sometimes fatal autoimmune diseases of the skin, characterized clinically by successive crops of vesicles and bullae, histologically by acantholysis, and immunologically by serum autoantibodies against antigens (see desmogleins) in the intracellular zones of the epidermis.
pemphigus
NAME THE SKIN CONDITION:
a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the connective tissue:
lupus erythematosus
What are the 2 forms of lupus erythematosus?
discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE);
& sytemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)
Which type of lupus is more widespread, involving the skin and other organs?
SLE,
systemic lupus erythematosus
Which lupus involves only the skin, and is seen as rough, raised, violet-tinted papules, usually limited to the face & scalp?
DLE,
discoid lupus erythematosus
What is the name of the butterfly-shaped rash across the nose & cheeks that often accompanies SLE & DLE?
malar rash
(meaning 'cheekbone')
general term for a disease in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation:
exanthem
When a drug is injected with a needle just beneath the
epidermis, it is called:
intradermal
The abbreviation ABCDEs is used to describe key
characteristics of melanoma. What does this stand for?
A=assymetry
B=border irregularity
C=color variation
D=diameter
E=evolving
Another name for ringworm:
tinea corporis
Common name for tinea pedis:
athlete's foot
inflammation involving the folds of tissue surrounding the nail:
paronychia;
Called also perionychia. See also onychia.
Which classification is used to indicate the thickness of
a melanoma tumor?
Breslow
-apheresis
removal
redundancy of skin in the upper eyelid:
blepharochalasis
The term for drooping of the upper eyelid:
blepharoptosis
spasmodic winking or contraction:
blepharospasm
eczema presenting in discrete, round (coin-shaped or annular) lesions that may coalesce to form large patches that ooze and crust over; the usual site is on the extensor limb surfaces or the chest, back, or buttocks.
nummular eczema;
Called also discoid e., exudative neurodermatitis, and nummular dermatitis or neurodermatitis
Lidex is prescribed for:
itching
A severe form of impetigo that may leave scars is known as:
ecthyma

(in dictation, may sound like ex-sigh-ma)
the development of impetigo in an area of skin already damaged by a noninfectious dermatitis is known as:
impetiginization
The degree to which tissue spaces, particularly in the skin and subcutaneous tissues are filled with extracellular fluid is known as:
turgor
When a zone of normally lax skin is gently picked up and released, it should flatten immediately. Failure to do so is called:
tenting
meaning of "glabrous"
smooth & bare (as skin)
another name for tinea corporis:
tinea circinata
Name 3 fungi which are potential causes of tinea corporis:
Microsporum,
Epidermophyton,
Trichophyton
KOH
(expansion of abbreviation)
potassium hydroxide
What is one test for tinea corporis?
KOH test;
scrapings of scales are heated with potassium hydroxide & examined with a microscope
What type of culture medium is used to describe presence of fungi?
culture on Sabouraud's medium
Examination of a fungus with a Wood light (lamp) will show fluorescence only if it is due to which fungus?
Microsporum
an id reaction associated with a dermatophytosis, which may be associated with various types of lesions but with the most common being vesicles occurring on the hands, wrists, and sides of the fingers in association with tinea pedis:
dermatophytid
any superficial fungal infection caused by a dermatophyte and involving the stratum corneum of the skin, hair, and nails, including onychomycosis and the various forms of tinea:
dermatophytosis
(ringworm)
a sterile secondary skin eruption occurring in sensitized patients as a result of circulation of allergenic products from a primary site of infection; the morphology and site of the lesion vary:
id reaction
oral treatment for tinea capitis:
griseofulvin
topical treatment for tinea capitis:
selenium sulfide shampoo
A complication of tinea capitis, with boggy edema and exudation of pus through hair follicles is known as:
kerion
meaning of tumefaction:
swelling
What fungus causes tinea versicolor?
Malassezia furfur
"ripping or tearing away of a part":
avulsion
plural of lentigo
lentigenes

(macular light brown sun spots seen on upper back)
a common, benign condition of unknown etiology manifested by small, sharply demarcated, irregular hypopigmented spots primarily on sun-exposed areas of the limbs in persons over age 30:
idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis
Name an Rx prescribed for rosacea:
metronidazole
(MetroGel)
Name an Rx prescribed for onychomycosis:
Lamisil

(RMT review guide)
Name the 5 maximum cellular layers on the palms & soles of the feet:
outside to inside:
stratum corneum (horny layer)
stratum lucidum,
stratum granulosum,
stratum spinosum,
stratum basale
Name the layers in the general epidermis:
stratum corneum,
stratum granulosum (usually unidentifiable),
stratum spinosum,
stratum basale
(there is no stratum lucidum)
hidr(o)-
a combining form denoting relationship to sweat or to a sweat gland.
a fatty mass retained within a sebaceous gland:
steatoma
A small (less than 3 cm) hemorrhagic spot appearing as blue or purple on the skin is called:
petechia
An acute, diffuse, spreading, edematous inflammation of the deep subcutaneous tissues caused by a bacterial infection is called:
cellulitis

(subcutaneous--impetigo would be the epidermis)