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118 Cards in this Set

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MALT
mucousal-associated lymphoid tissue
GALT
gut-associated lymphoid tissue
location of Kupffer cells
liver
location of Peyer patches
distal end of small intestine
name of the storage pouch in the thoracic duct
cisterna chyli
milky fluid composed of fat globules and lymph that drains from the intestinal lacteals
chyle
filaria; filariae
small nematode worms that invade the lymph system and cause elephantiasis (enlargement of the lower extremities or scrotum)
Macrophages and monocytes throughout the body make up what system?
retuculoendothelial system
(specialized endothelial cells lining the sinusoids of the liver, spleen, and bone marrow)
Tc
cytotoxic T cells
destroy foreign cells directly
Treg
regulatory T cells
suppress immune response to prevent overactivity
TH
helper T cells
release interleukins (that stimulate the other lymphocytes)
assist in destruction of foreign cells by stimulating other lymphocytes and macrophages
MHC
major histocompatibility complex (self-antigens)
IL
interleukin
4 types of T cells
cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
regulator T cells
memory T cells
another name for "antibody"
immunoglobulin
Ig
immunogobulin
Ag
antigen
(also symbol for silver)
role of B cells (B lymphocytes)
produce antibodies
Name the 5 classes of immunoglobulins
IgG 75%
IgA 15%
IgM 5%-10%
IgD <1%
IgE <0.1%
Childhood immunizations:
DTaP
a mixture of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular (aP) vaccine for pertussis (whooping cough)
Hib
Haemophilus influenza type b (spinal meningitis)
PCV
pneumococcus (pneumonia, meningitis)
MMR
measles, mumps, rubella
HBV
Hepatitis B vaccine
IPV
Poliomyelitis (polio vaccine)
Varicella
chickenpox
Rotavirus
rotavirus gastroenteritis
Td
diphtheria and tetanus toxoid
OPV
oral polio vaccine
made with live attenuated polio vaccine (Dr. Albert Sabin)
IPV
inactivated polio vaccine
made with killed poliovirus (Dr. Jonas Salk)
scientific name for Measles
rubeola
scientific name for German Measles
rubella
HPV
human papilloma virus
Rho(D)
immune globulin given to Rh-negative mothers to prevent formation of RH antibodies against positive fetus'
tradename: RhoGAM
ana-
excessive
RF
rheumatoid factor
factor associated with rheumatoid arthritis
VDRL
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
test for syphilis
CMV
cytomegalovirus
chyl-, chyli-, chylo-
chyle, fat emulsion in lymph;

juice (Stedman's flashcards)
heter-, hetero-
other, different
iso-
same, like
xeno-
strange, foreign
lympha
Greek word for 'clear spring water'
massein, masso
massein is theGreek word meaning 'to knead';
masso- to knead
ex.: massotherapy--[Gr. massein to knead + therapy] the treatment of disease by massage.
scintilla
spark
nonspecific immunity, defend the body through action of which cells?
T cells
specific immunity--defends the body through the action of which cells
B cells aimed directly at particular agents
lymphatic organ located in the anterior superior mediastinum
thymus
largest lymphatic organ
spleen
location of spleen
on the left side, inferior to the diaphragm
name the tonsils
palastine tonsils (2)
lingual tonsils (2)
pharyngeal tonsils-adenoids (1)
lymphatic in small intestine that transports chyle
lacteal
(carries 'milky' emulsion of fat droplets--chyle
(remember 'lact/o- means milk)
plural of lymphatic
lymphaticus
natural protein with antibody activity
immunoglobulin
cortex (of a lymph node)
cortex of lymph node: the outer portion of the node, consisting mainly of dense lymphatic tissue and follicles; called also cortex nodi lymphatici[TA alternative].
referred to as the 'cortical portion'
afferent
conveying toward a center; called also centripetal;
lymph enters the node through the afferent vessel
efferent
conveying away from a center; called also centrifugal
efferent vessels of lymph node
lymphatic vessels that carry lymph away from a lymph node, emerging at the hilus.
afferent vessels of lymph node
lymphatic vessels that carry lymph to a lymph node, entering through the capsule
Name areas without lymphatics
avascular tissue
brain & spinal cord
bone marrow
teeth
lymph clusters are found in:
cervical
axillary
inguinal (iliac nodes,
mammary
intestinal (mesentary nodes)
tonsils
2 large collecting ducts:
(left) thoracic, left lymphatic duct;
right lymphatic duct (right thoracic duct)
alternate names for the thoracic duct
called also ductus thoracicus[TA], alimentary duct, chyliferous duct, duct of Pecquet, left lymphatic duct, and van Hoorne canal.
the canal that ascends from the cisterna chyli to the junction of the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins;
thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)
the vessel that the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct drain into
subclavian veins
body actions that contribute to lymph circulation are known as:
lymphokinetic factors
site of T cell maturation
thymus
white pulp of the spleen
splenic lymphoid nodules: aggregations of lymphatic tissue that ensheath the arteries in the spleen. Called also noduli lymphoidei lienales[TA alternative], folliculi lymphatici splenici, folliculi lymphatici lienales, malpighian bodies of spleen, malpighian corpuscles of spleen, and white pulp.
red pulp of the spleen
serves as a blood reservoir
2 hormones that aide in the T cell maturation
thymosin and thymopoietin
ingestion of foreign particles
phagocytosis
PNI
psychoneuroimmunology
study of the association between the psyche and the body
RES
reticuloendothelial system;
also called the monocyte-macrophage system
RES is comprised of phagocytic cells found where?
liver, lungs, lymph nodes, & spleen
set of 34 proteins in the bloodstream that destruct pathogen cell walls
collectively called complement
IFNs
interferons
Tc cells
cytotoxic T cells
aka: natural killer (NK)
NK cells
natural killer cells
aka: cytotoxic T cells (TC)
helper T cell cell-surface marker subsets (TH)


BOS
CD1, CD3, CD4
natural killer-suppressor T cell cell-surface marker subsets


BOS
CD1, CD3, CD5, CD8
Helper T cells (TH) are also known as:
CD4+ T cells
a generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population (e.g., primed T lymphocytes) on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of an immune response
cytokines
helper T cells secrete?
cytokine, interleukin 2
TS
suppressor T cells
TA
amplifier T cells
proteins involved in destroying foreign cells
complement
Name the different kinds of T cells:
cytotoxic T cells,
helper T cells,
amlifier T cells,
suppressor T cells,
memory T cells
Name the T cell:
stimulate activation of B cells and T cells
helper T cells
Name the T cell:
modulate T cell and B cell activity
suppressor T cells
Name the T cell:
cells that attack abnormal antigen-displaying cells
cytotoxic T cells
Name the T cell:
cells respond to future encounters with an antigen
memory T cells
Name the T cell:
stimulate functions of T cells, suppressor T cells, and plasma cells
amplifier T cells
set of proteins that increase cellular resistence
interferon
Name the immunity:

immunity mediated by antibodies.
humoral immunity;
Cf. --opposite of: cell-mediated i.
Name the immunity:

immunity that does not involve the recognition of antigen by lymphocytes and the mounting of a specific immune response; e.g., the protection afforded by lysozyme, interferon, the cells involved in natural immunity, and anatomical barriers to infection.
nonspecific immunity
Name the immunity:

immunity against a particular disease, e.g., scarlet fever, or against a particular antigen.
specific immunity
Name the immunity:

immunity mediated by T lymphocytes either through release of lymphokines or through exertion of direct cytotoxicity, transmissible by transfer of lymphocytes but not serum; it includes type IV hypersensitivity reactions, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disease, allograft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and systemic responses to viral or microbial infections or to tumor cells.
cell-mediated immunity or cellular immunity;
Called also T cell–mediated immunity. (Cf.--opposite of: humoral iimmunity.)
Name the immunity:

immunity involving the functioning of the immune system acquired by natural infection or vaccination (active immunity) or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (passive immunity).
acquired immunity;
(Cf.--opposite of: innate immunity.)
Name the immunity:

acquired immunity developing in response to antigenic stimulus.
active immunity;
( Cf.--opposite of: passive immunity)
Name the immunity:

acquired immunity produced by deliberate exposure to an antigen (active immunity), as in vaccination, or by the transfer of immunoglobulins from an immune individual to a nonimmune one (passive immunity).
artificial immunity
Name the immunity:

immunity based on the genetic constitution of the individual, e.g., immunity of humans to canine distemper.
innate immunity;
Called also familial i., genetic i., inherent i., inherited i., and native i.
Name the immunity:

immunity mediated by cells capable of immune activity without being stimulated by immunization and without antigen specificity, e.g., the activity of NK cells against virus infection and tumor cells.
natural immunity
Name the immunity:

immunity acquired by transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor.
passive immunity;
(Cf. --opposite of: active immunity)
Name the immunity:

the development of resistance to reinfection even though the original infection persists, an apparent paradox.
infection immunity;
Called also concomitant immunity
B cell produce what 2 kinds of cells?
plasma cells &
clones or daughter cell lymphocytes
"Humor" is a medieval term for any of the body's what 4 main fluids?
blood,
yellow bile,
black bile,
lymph
family of proteins precipitated from serum or plasma
globulin
produced by white blood cells during an immune response; function like antibodies
immunoglobulins (Ig)
Which immunoglobulin promotes allergic reactions?
IgE
Which immunoglobulin is found on surfaces of B cells & plays a major role in the activation of B cells
IgD
Which immunoglobulin binds to specific antigens?
IgA
2 pharmaceutical agents assisting the immune response
antibiotics,
vaccines
Name the 4 types of asthma:
acute asthma,
extrinsic asthma,
intrinsic asthma,
status asthmaticus
Name the asthma:

asthma caused by environmental allergins
extrinsic asthma
Name the asthma:

sudden, severe asthma causing coughing and difficulty breathing
acute asthma
Name the asthma:

asthma of unknown cause
intrinsic asthma
Name the asthma:

long-lasting, persistent, & can lead to respiratory distress & failure
status asthmaticus
infection of humans or other animals by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, transmitted in oocysts in the feces of cats (the definitive host), usually by contaminated soil, exposure to feces, tissue cysts in infected meat, or tachyzoites in blood.
toxoplasmosis