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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 possible functional components of nerves
general sensory, special sensory, somatic motor, visceral motor
What 3 functional components are found in spinal nerves
general sensory, somatic motor, visceral motor
define neuronal pathways
chains of neurons linking the brain w/ the rest of the body
Within the CNS, sensory pathways _________ while motor pathways ______________.
Ascend, descend
Upper motor neurons
Found in the corticospinal tract. Cell bodies in the motor cortex
Lower motor neurons
Directly innervate skeletal muscle. Cranial and spinal nerves.
Which pathway typically requires 3 neurons?
Sensory (ascending)
autonomic nervous system includes ______________ neurons
all visceral motor neurons
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands are _________
there are _____________ neurons from the CNS to the effector.
at least 2 neurons
Where can you find the cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons?
The intermediolateral column btw T1-L2.
What are 2 locations of sympathetic ganglia?
sympathetic trunk (chain), prevertebral ganglia
Origin of parasympathetic neurons
Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and sacral nerves II, III, and IV
where are the ganglia of parasympathetic neurons typically located?
In or near the effectors
Examples of visceral sensation
baroreceptor, chemoreceptor, pain fibers
physiological afferents follow _________ neurons
what type of neurons are involved in reflex arcs
physiological afferents (visceral sensation)
Pain fibers follow ___________
sympathetic neurons
How does the body often process visceral pain?
Refers it to the corresponding dermatome
Where are the cell bodys for visceral pain located?
Dorsal root ganglion
What is the target of visceral motor neurons?
autonomic effectors: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
What is the target of somatic motor neurons?
skeletal muscle
alpha neurons
somatic motor neurons going to the muscle fibers
gamma neurons
Somatic motor neurons going to muscle spindles
Which type of functional neuron is only found in cranial nerves
special sensory
Which spinal nerves are involved in sympathetic system? the parasympathetic system?
T1-L2; S2-4
Define reflex
stereotypic motor response to stimulus. Can be somatic or visceral.
Stretch reflex
simplest reflex arc, monosynaptic. Muscle spindle is stretched, afferent neuron (passing through dorsal root) synapses on efferent alpha motor neuron in ventral horn.
polysynaptic reflex arc
3 or more neurons. afferent (usually pain) neuron synapses with interneuron in gray matter, which synapses with efferent (alpha motor) neuron of the specific muscle, not necessarily at same level.
concentrations of white matter in the spinal cord
Voluntary motor pathway
("pyramidal system"). Axons from cell bodies in motor cortex in brain descend through brainstem to spinal cord. Synapse w/ motor neuron in ventral horn (maybe through interneuron)
How many neurons are usually in a general sensory pathway?
3 (primary, secondary, tertiary)
Spinothalamic system
general sensory pathway for pain, temp, and pressure
Medial lemniscus/dorsal column system
general sensory pathway for fine touch, conscious proprioception
Describe the general sensory pathway
3 neurons to get to brain. 1st is in skin (dorsal root ganglion), second is in spinal chord, ascends in tract up to thalamus. 3rd is in thalamus and goes to sensory cortex
Where in the brain to all sensory neurons (except smell) synapse?
Thalamus (gray matter)
Major ascending spinal tracts
Dorsal column system: fine tactile and ?. medial to dorsal horns. Also Anterolateral system (ALS) (includes spinothalamic (pain and temp)) on lateral border of medial aspect.
Major decending spinal tract
Lateral corticospinal (pyramidal) tract: just lateral in medial 1/3 of white matter (not on edge)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lou Gehrig's disease. Degeneration of motor neurons, often in lateral corticospinal region
Where does autonomic nervous system originate and how many neurons are involved?
**Card might be wrong! If you know how to correct it please do**
Originates in CNS; 2 neurons. 1st (presynaptic) in brainstem or spinal cord (or should it be in the lateral horn of spinal column?), synapsing with 2nd (postsynaptic) in a ganglion. 2nd synapses with effector organ.
Where are the ganglia of parasympathetic sysem found? sympathetic?
In or near effector; in sympathetic chain (trunk)
sympathetic NS pathway
There are ____ white communicating rami and ____ gray communicating rami
14 pairs; 31 pairs
True or False: organs can be innervated by both the sympathetic and parasymp?
True. Sometimes antagonistic, sometimes synergistic (eg. salivary glands)
Visceral sentation Pathways (2)
-physiological afferents (baroreceptor, chemoreceptor) follow para neurons and are involved in reflex arcs.
-Pain fibers follow symp neurons to spinal cord
white communicating rami
Takes sympathetic motor neurons from ventral root to sympathetic trunk (ganglia)
grey communicating rami
take sympathetic motor neurons from sympathetic trunk to spinal nerves (?)