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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 3 divisions of the Sternum.
Manubrium, Body/Shaft, and Xiphiod Process
What are the palpable landmarks and their level?
Jugular Notch
T2-T3
Sternal Angle
T4-T5
Xiphiod Process
T9-T10
Inferior Rib Angle
L2-L3
What is the joint that joins the manubrium to the jugular notch?
Sternoclavicular Joint
What are the short pieces of cartilage that connect the ribs to the sternum refered to as?
Costocartilage
List all the common parts of the ribs.
Vertebral End
Head
Neck
Tubercles
Angle
Shaft
Coastal Groove
Sternal End
What are the first 7 ribs referred to as?
True
What are the last 5 ribs referred to as?
False
Ribs 11 and 12 are also called ______ ?
Floating Ribs
How much higher is the vetebral end than the sternal end?
3-5 inches
What is the joint that is b/w the costocartilage(rib to sternum)and the sternal end of the 4th rib?
Costochondral Union
What is the anterior articulation for ribs 1-10?
Costochondral Unions
What is the first ribs anterior articulation to the sternum?
Sternocostal Joint
What is the anterior articulation for ribs 2-7 to the sternum?
Sternocostal joints
What is the anterior articulation for the ribs 6-10 costocartilage?
Costotransverse Joints
What is the posterior articulation for the ribs 1-10 to the transverse process of the T vertebra?
Costotransverse Joints
What is the posterior articulation of the ribs 1-12 b/w the heads of the ribs and the T vertebra?
Costovertebral Joints
Why do we not do bony thorax in true PA's and AP's?
B/c the thoracic spine is much more dense
Why are the patients rotated 15-20 degrees RAO position?
To shift the sternum to the left of the thoracic vertebrae and into the homogenous heart shadow.
If the patients chest is shallow or thin, does it more or less rotation?
More-20 degrees

(less-15degrees-for patient w/ deep chest)
Why is it difficult to obtain an optimal radiation density and contrast on sternum region?
The sternum is primarly made up of spongy bone w/ a thin layer of hard compact bone surrounding it, combined w/ the easy to penetrate lungs and harder to penetrate heart.
What is the breathing technique for the 3-4 second time exposure?
shallow breathing during the exposure.

*If that time cannot be obatained have pt. let out expiration slowly and take exposure near end.
What is the minimum SID?
40"
How many ribs are seen for radiograohic study of above the diaphram?
Upper 10 posterior ribs

*You will only see 8-9 if pt. is unable to breathe a full inspiration
Why is it perferred that the pt. be erect or sitting for a radiographic image for above the diaphram?
Gravity assists w/ lowering the diaphram and also allows deeper inspiration to supress the diaphram. Also movement on the table can cause pain and discomfort to the pt.
Why do we suspend on inspiration?
To project the diaphram below the 9th and 10th ribs.
Why is a low kVp required for upper ribs?
It will perserve radiation contrast and allow visualization of the ribs through air filled lungs.

*If injury is over the heart area, it may require more kVp.
Why is it perferred that the pt. be recumbent for below the diaphram?
It allows the diaphram to rise to the highest position possible and results in less thick abd. esp. for hyposthenic pts.
Why do we suspend and expose respiration on expiration?
It allows the diaphram to rise to the level of the 7th and 8th posterior ribs.
Why do we select a medium kVp?
it will ensure proper penetration of the diaphram and dense abd.
Why do we tend to place the area of interest against the IR and rotate spine away from the area of interest?
It prevents the spine from superimposing the region of interest.
Linear lucency through the rib segments?
Flail Chest
Linear lucency or a displaced sternal segment?
Sternum Fracture
Pigeon Chest?
Pectus carinatum
Funnel Chest?
Pectus excavatum
List the types of lesions
Osteolytic, Osteoblastic, and Combination
Erosion of bony margins?
Osteomyelitis