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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a respiratory lobule?
It is bounded by septa and contains 3-10 acini.
Where are alveolar macrophages found?
They are cells of the alveolar WALL,derived from monocytes.--->found on alveolar surface.
Why do macrophages contain small brown particles?
They phagocytose and digest RBC,esp in cardiac failure pts,with only hemosiderin left.
What is the interstitium in the alveolar wall?
It is a CT between type 1 pneumocyte and endothelial cells of the capillary.
NAme the contents of the interstitium and the cells present in the alveolar wall.
-Elastic fibres(recoil of lungs in exp.)
-Mast cells
What do interstitial(septal) fibroblasts produce?
Type 3 collagen and elastin.(matrix)
WHat is passive hyperemia?
Blood collects in an organ of the body in response to a blockage in the veins that are supposed to move the blood out
Do interstitial fibroblasts possess gap junctions and lipid droplets?
Are septal cells contractile?
What are the 3 common responses of acinus to injury?
- Congestion
- Oedema
- Atelectasis
What usually causes pulm. congestion(passive hyperemia)?
Left ventricular failure-blood vessels distended and blood flow sluggish, with increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Congestion occurs due to inflammation also.
What happens during pulm. oedema due to LV failure?
Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing(around pulm. veins)--> lungs stiffer and its harder to breathe.
Alveolar flooding occurs during
Pulm. oedema with gas exchange not happening---->frothy sputum.
What happens during atelectasis of lungs?
-Resorption of air
- Compression
- Contraction around scar
-----> collection of fluid compresses base of lungs
WHat is the smallest conducting a/w ?
Terminal bronchioles( < 0.5 mm diameter)
What is a respiratory acinus?
A functional unit consisting of:
-terminal bronchiole
-resp. bronchiole
-alveolar ducts
-alveolar sacs
Where are Clara cells found?
What do the secretory granules of Clara cells contain?
Surfactant for bronchioles
Clara cells are dome shaped and stem cells for bronchiolar epithelium.
What is the main function of Clara cells?
Protective function via SER oxidases and antiproteases(limit damage by inflam. cells)
Describe terminal bronchioles' structure.
-Fibroelastic CT
-1-2 Smooth muscle cells
- CUBOIDAL ciliated epithelim,clara cells
Resp. bronchioles contain
Alveolar outpouchings
Resp. bronchioles divide into
2-3 alveolar ducts
Are there any smooth muscle cells in resp. bronchioles?
Yes:1-2 SM cells(along with thin fibroelastic CT)
What kind of epithelium in resp. bronchiole?
Cuboidal epithelium becoming flattened.
Alveolar ducts contain
Flattened epithelium.
Alveolar ducts contain numerous alveoli.
Alveolar ducts divide into
2-3 alveolar sacs
WHat is the function of Pores of Kohn?
Euilibrate pressure and allow oedema fluid + infectious agents to spread.
Alveolar macrophages are the APC of the immune system in the lungs.
What is the diff. between the epithelium of terminal bronchioles and resp. bronchioles?
Epithelium of terminal bronchioles is Cuboidal CILIATED whereas in resp. bronchioles,cilia are absent.