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52 Cards in this Set

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1.Hydrocortisone, prednisone, dexametasone are examples of what kind of drugs? 2. Name two more drugs
1.Glucocorticoid 2.bleclomethasone(asthma) and triamcinolone
Glucocorticoids decrease the production of what two important inflammatory molecules? Used to treat what clincal illness?
1.Leukotrienes and prostanglandins 2. Addison's Asthma, inflammation, immune suppression
To treat Addison's disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma, use ____
Glucocorticoids
An important side-effect of Glucocortioid usage is ____
Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome
1. Buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity and peptic ulcers characterize what syndrome? 2. What other Si/Sx(in muscle, skin, bone and adrenal gland) are found in this syndrome?
1.Cushing's Syndrome 2.Muscles wasting, thin skin, easy bruisability, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy,
1. Which two drugs inhibit cGMP phosphodiesterase causing penile erection? 2. Mechanism?
1. Sildenafil and Verdenafil --they fill the penis 2. This inhibiton leads an increase in cGMP -leading to smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum then penile erection.
1.What class of drugs are used to treat erectile dysfunction? 2. This class of drug taken with Nitrates may cause what complication?
1.cGMP phosphodiesterase Inhibitors 2. High risk of life-threatening hypotension taken in combination with Nitrates(also vasodialates)
Which drugs is a partial agonist of estrogen recpetors in the pituitary gland? What is this drug's mechanism to treat infertility?
1.clomiphene 2. Stimulating increase in LH and FSH, which stimulates ovulation to treat infertility
What is Clomiphene? What are Clomiphene's side effects?
1. Fertility drug 2. Hotflashes and ovarian enlargment (perhaps due to increased estrogen), multiple simultaneous pregnancies, visual disturbances
1.Name an abortifacient is a competitite inhibitor of preogestins at progesterone recpetor and may lead to heavy menstrual-like bleeding?
2.Name another drug used in cancer that could be used for abortions and ectopic pregnancy?
1.Mifepristone (RU486) 2. Methotraxate (S-phase specific antimetabolite)
1.Oral contraceptive(OC) are reliable that decreases incidence of ectopic pregnancy - what are the other benefits of OC?
2. What are the drawback to OC use? What the major components of OCs?
1. Decreases risk of pelvic infections, and regulates menses;
2. Hypercoagulable state, may increase your trigylcerides, weight, and blood pressure
3.Oral Contracpetices - syntheitc progestins/estrogen
This Purine compound is converted to uric acid which leads to gout? 2. Name the enzyme involved in the conversion? Name the other 3 purine compounds? Name the end product of these purines?
1.Xanthine (converted from excess purines) 2. Xanthine oxidase in two xanthine reactions. 3. Guanine, Hypoxanthine and Adenosine 4. Uric acid (liver, excreted by urine)
This drug depolymerizes microtubules used to treat gout? Mechanism of this drug? Used for chronic or acute gout?
1. Colchicine 2. Destabilizing the microtubule lead Impairing leukocyte chemotaxis and degranulation - reduce inflammation and tissue destruction associated with gout. 3. Acute
This drugs inhibits reabsorption of uric acid? What form gout is it used to treat (chronic or Acute) gout? Effect of this drug on secretion of penicilin into the renal tubules?
1. Probenecid 2. Chronic
This drug is used to treat chronic gout, but also inhbits secretion of penicillin
1.Probenecid 2.inhbits secretion of penicillin
This drugs inhibits xanthine oxidase and therefore inhibit what reactions?
1.Allopurinol
2. Xanthine oxidase is important for the conversion of Hypoxanthine--> Xanthine and Xanthine-->Uric acid
What drugs inhibit the secretion of Uric acid into the renal tubule and excerbate Sx of gout?
Diuretics and Low dose salicylates
Antimetabolites, steroid hormones and etoposides are the cell cycle specific oncologic drugs - name three more?
Plant alkaloids, bleomycin, paclitaxel
Name two cell cycle Nonspecific oncologic drugs?
alkylating agents and antibiotics
Name the S-phase-specific anti-metabolite that is an folic acid analog- what enzyme does it inhibit? What is its anti-cancer mechanism? Effect on DNA and protein synthesis?
1. Methotrexate 2. Inhibits dihydrofolate reducate 3. Prevents conversion of folate to FH2 and prevents FH2-->FH4 in the production of dTMP4. End result is it decreases dTMP(thymidine and purines) and the decreaing DNA/prtein synthesis.
1.Name the S-phase-specific anti-metabolite that is a pyrmidine analog used for cancer Tx? 2.Name the compound it gets bioactivated to and what this compound gets complexed to? 3. What enzymes gets inhibited in the process and descrbe the effect of this inhibition?
1. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) 2. 5-FU gets bioactivated to form F-dUMP and it get complexed to folic acid 3. Inhibiting thymidylate synthase, decreasing dTMP and decreasing DNA/protein synthesis
Myelosuppression by methotrxate is reversible with what drug? How well is methotrexate transported across the BBB?
1. Leucovorin (folinic acid) rescue 2. Poorly - hence the importance of Leucovorin in high Methotrexate doses
Which drug blocks purine synthesis and is used to treat leukemias, lymphomas (not CLL or Hodgkins)? This purine analog is metabolized by what enzyme? Name another purine analog for CAH tx?
1. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) 2. Xanthine oxidase 3. Thioguanine
Which drug alkylates DNA and is used to treat CML?
Busulfan
1.Which drug inhibits DNA polymerase and is used to treat AML?
2.Some side effects are leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, name another side effect?
1. Cytarabine
2. Megaloblastic anemia
1. Folic analog used to treat leukemias, lymphomas, choricarcinoma, also a abortifacient? 2. Name other conditions this drug is in their treatment? 3. Side effects?
1. Methotrexate 2.Sacromas, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis 3. It may lead to myelosuppression
1. 5-Fluorouracil is used to treat with CAHs (think skin and GI)? 2. Is the myelosuppresion by 5-FU reversible or irreversible?
1. Used to treat colon cancer and other solid tumors, basal cell carcinoma (topically)? 2. Irreversible (this is not good)

F-Ur ass and skin (excuse the language)
This drugs used to treat CML may lead to pulmonary fibrosis and hyperpigmentation? Name two other drugs with pulmonary fibrosis as their side effect?
1. Busulfan 2. Amiodarone and Bleomycin
Name the oncogenic drug that is an alkylating agent which is bioacivated by liver? 2. What is this drug's mechanism? 3. Tx for what form of cancers? Name another alkalating agent?
1. Cyclophosphamides
2.Covalently x-links DNA at guanine N-7
3. Non-hodgkin's lymphoma, breast/ovarian carcinomas
4. Busulfan
1.Carmustine and Streptozocin are part of what group? 2. Name two other drugs in this group? 3.Drug mechanism of action? Treatment of what tumors?
1. Nitrosoureas (alkylating agent) 2.lomustine, semustine, 3. Alkylates DNA after bioactivation and can cross the BBB and treats brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme)

Nitrous bomb for the head!
1.Name drug that acts like an alkylating agent, x-linking via hyrdolysis of Cl and platinum? 2. What are the therapeutic uses of this drug?
1. Cisplatin 2. Testicular, bladder, lung carcinomas (Platinium balls and lungs)
This alkylating agent can cause myelosuppression and hemorhagic cystitis
cyclophosphamides
This combination of drugs is used to treat Hodgkin's and myelomas, sarcomas, and solid tumors (breast, ovary, lung)
ABVD: Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine
This drug causes noncovalently intercalates in DNA, creating breaks to decrease replication and transcription?
Doxorubicin (adriamycin)
Bleomycin, Dactinomycin
____intercalates DNA strands and induces free radical fromation which causes strand breaks
Which drugs causes cardiotoxicity, alopecia, and myelosuppression?
Doxorubicin (adriamycin)
Which drug is used to trat oat cell carcinoma of the lung and prostate/testicular carcinoma?
Etoposide

(Twisted balls and lungs)
This combination of drugs is used to treat lymphoma, CLL, Hodgkin's, Wilm's tumor, choriocarcinoma
MOPP (Mustargen, Oncovin (Vincristine), Procarbazine (Matulane), Prednisone)

Wilm and Hodgkins love to MOPP
Which glucocorticoid may trigger apoptosis and may even work on nondividing cells
Prednisone


(the killer of non-divding cells):--> just an exagerated mneumonic
This drug is a G2-phase specific inhibitor of Topisiomerase II, leaving double strand breaks in DNA following DNA replication?
Etoposide
This drug used to treat testicular cancer and lymphomas may cayse pulmonary fibrosis, skin chnages, and myelosuppression
Bleomycin, Dactinomycin
1. This immunosuppressant drug is used for lymphomas may cause acne, osteoporosis, hypertension, peptic ulcers? 2. Name other side effects
1. Prednisone 2. hyperglycemia, psychosis
Name this oncogenic drug that is an estrogen receptor mixed agonist/antagonist? How does it work? 2. This drug is used to treat what condition? 3. Risks and side effect?
1.Tomoxifen/Raloxifene 2. Blocks the binding of estrogen to ER+ cells? 3. Breast cancer 4. Endometrial carcinomas and hot flashes
1.How does Vincristine work? 2.Name other related drugs?
1. M-phase-specific alkaloid that binds to tubulin and blocks polymerization of microtubules, preventing spindle formation 2. Vinblastin
How does Paclitaxel work? 2. Side effects?
1.M-phase-specific agent that binds to tubulin and hyperstabilizes the polymerized microtubules preventing mitotic spindle breakdown. 2.Myelosuppression and hypersensitivity
Name three M-phase oncogenic drugs?
Vincristine, Vinblastine, Paclitaxel
Side-effects of Vinblastine include….
VinBASTine BLASTs Bone Morraow, causing myelosuppression, as well as neurotoxicity and paralutic ileus.
1. How does cyclosporine work? 2. What is its clinical use? 3.Side effect and Risks?
1. binds to cyclophilins, blocking differentiation and activation of T cells mainly by inhibiting IL2 production 2. Suppress organ rejection 3. Viral infections and lymphoma
This antimetabolite derivative of 6-mercaptopurine interferes with the metabolism and synthesis of nucleic acid, therefore toxic to proliferating lymphocytes
azathioprine
This potent immunosuppressive drug binds to the FK-binding protein and inhibits secretion of IL2 and other cytokines
tacrolimus (FK506)
Difference between Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus in their mechanism?
1. Cyclosporine inhibits the synthesis of IL-2 2. Tacrolimus inhibits the release of IL-2.
Azaothioprine is used to in what setting?
Kidney transplants, autoimmune disorders (glomerulonephritis, hemolytic anemia)