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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where does ventilation occur?
Airways-from nose to alveoli
Where do you get gas exchange?
Parenchyma-from alv. capillary mb to organs
What constitute the upper airways?
Nasal& oral airways/hypopharynx and larynx.
Where does diffusion occur?
Alv.- cap. membrane
At what generation do u get terminal bronchioles?
Terminal bronchioles contain little alveolar sacs in wall.
Where does gas exhange start?
As soon as you get alv. sacs,hence in terminal bronchioles.
Thin alveolar walls provide elastic forces to keep airways open(Airways patency)
What is gas exchange?
Process by which O2 in alv. space diffuses across epithelium,endothelium,BM through a bit of plasma into RBC.
Distance for gas to mix with Hb is long.
False.its short.
What kind of cells are type 2 epithelial cells?
Plum,fleshy cells with increased no. of cytoplasmic vesicles-surfactant production in lamellar bodies.(metabolically reactive cells)
PaCO2 is an index of adequacy of alveolar ventilation.
Where are pulmonary capillaries normally found?
Base of lungs in erect posture.
Pulm. blood flow gets its O2 1/3 of way at rest.
True(pulm. blood flow is a low pressure system-1/4 sec for blood to pass through)
During exercise ,pulm. blood flow gets 02 initially.
False.It gets its O2 just before it leaves.
What is volume of lungs at rest?
3 Litres(FRC)
What is the mean pressure of the pulm. circulation?(large volume,low P-25/8mmHg)
What type of circulation is the systemic one?(120/80 mmHg)
High P,Small volume,High resistance.
Where does the genioglossus insert?
Inside of mandible.
Name some UA functions
Ventilation,Airway protection,cough,swallowing,speech.
What determines balance between oral and nasal airflow?
Urula tone.
What happens during exercise?
Breathe thru mouth.
What are the stages during inspiration?
1.Phrenic nerve discharge contracts diaphragm.
2.PCA abducts vocal cords-----> widens larynx.
3.Genioglossus pushes tongue forward & decreases resistance in UA.
U.A is stabilized and dilated in pre-inspiration.
Describe the stages during expiration.
1. Decrease in tone of PCA and diaphragm----> braking rate of expiration
2. T.A adducts vocal cords & narrow glottis.
Pulmonary & chest wall stretch receptors moderate PCA/GG & TA activity reflexly to control rate of inspiration and expiration.
Till when do plates of cartilage present in lower airways?
Till before bronchioles.
Lower a/w is lined with single layer of ciliated columnar epithelium
In pneumonia and chronic broncitis,size of lumen abt normal.
True,except that mucus plugs present
What happens during asthma/smoking?
Lumen size decreases due to intraluminal thickening(a/w wall thickened due to inflammation)
What happens in emphysema?
a/w loses its attachment/structural support---->narrow lumen
What diseases normally cause 20 % fall in FEV1?
Asthma,C.bronchitis,cold air
What does the symp. NS do to the a/w smooth muscle?
Vagal stimulation to the a/w causes cosntriction.
A decrease in PaCO2 will cause
Contraction of the a/w
What causes change in tonicity in exercise-induced asthma?
Increased ventilation.
How do we measure dynamic lung volumes?
Spirometry,peak flow meters,flow/volume loops.
Name 3 causes of restrictive lung diseases
Thickened chest wall/paralysed chest wall/hyperscoliosis
Describe expiratory flow rate
Effort independent with downstream a/w compression.
- It decreases with with decreased lung volume.
Inspiratory flow rate consists of
-Distended lower a/w
-decrease with reduced diaphr. strength
-depends on UA patency
What does home recording of peak flow show?
gradual deterioration before onset of acute exacerbation.(good to monitor a/w calibre)
Name 3 techniques to measure static lung volumes
1. Gas dilution and washout-accessible gas volume
2. Body plethysmograph--> total gas volume
3. CXR methods---> total displacement volume