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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the physical characteristics of hyaline cartilage? Where is it found in the body?
Bluish-white, translucent, smooth. Has small aggregations of chondrocytes embedded in ground substance reinforced by collagen fibers. Most common cartilage in body. Found in trachea, larynx, bronchi, ribs, articular surfaces, epiphyseal plates, nose, septum. It is also the precursor to bone in the embryo.
What are the physical characteristics of elastic cartilage? Where is it found in the body?
yellowish, flexible and resilient. Eustachian tube, external ear, auditory or Eustachian tube, epiglottis
1) What are the physical characteristics of fibrous cartilage? Where is it found in the body?
, unelastic. Prominent bundles of collagen which give it tensile strength. Pubic symphysis, intervetrebral discs, TMJ
What type of collagen is cartilage typically comprised of?
Type II.
Describe the parts of a typical long bone
: medullary cavity – filled with red marrow, spongy bone, compact bone, diaphysis - shaft, epiphyses – ends, epiphysial plate (only in bones that are still growing)
Where is new bone laid down?
At the surface of bones, near the Endosteum, periosteum
Describe an osteon
Has circumfrential rings called lamellae centered around a Haversian Canal. The osteocytes reside in lacunae and are connected to each other by Volksmann’s canals
What is unmineralized matrix called
Osteoid, located near osteoblasts
What determines the characteristics of bone and cartilage?
The ECM, specifically the ground substance (a highly hydrated gel composed of various proteoglycans), and the bound water.
What comprises the EMC of bone?
Collagen 1, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, specialized proteins (eg. Osteonectin and osteocalcin) and lipids.
What mineralizes the bony matrix?
hydroxyapatite (a complex calcium salt)
What are the constituents of cartilage?
cells (chondroblasts, chondrocytes), ECM (fibers, ground substance, bound water)
Describe chondroblasts and chondrocytes. What do they secrete?
Chondroblasts: synthesize and deposit ECM and fibers, not yet trapped by matrix.Chondrocytes: Mature. Completely surrounded by matrix, reside in lacunae. Many in one lacunae. Round (as opposed to spindle shaped, elongated fibroblasts)
Both secrete Collagen Type II, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins. Both arise from mesenchymal cells.
What produces the ECM of cartilage?
What are the 2 methods of cartilaginous growth?
A: Appositional growth – perichondrium differentiates into chondroblasts which lay down more cartilage on the surface, Interstitial growth – chondrocytes within the cart. divide mitotically.
What components will you find in hyaline cartilage?
Collagen II, chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate proteoglycans.
What are the components of elastic cartilage?
Same as hyaline (collagen II, chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate proteoglycans) and elastic fibers
What are the components of fibrocartilage?
Same as others, also has collagen Type I.
Is cartilage vascular? Is bone? How does cartilage receive nutrients? Bone?
No, nor does it have nerves or lymphatic system. Bone, yes. Cartilage - From the perichondrium (fibrous layer that surrounds the cartilage) or synovial fluid. Anaerobic glycolysis is favored and metabolic rate is low. Why is this important? Injury and repair. Bone has blood vessels penetrating into the medullary cavity of a long bone, in the epiphyses, and in the periosteum.
List classifications of bone.
Long, short, flat, irregular, endochondrial, intramembranous, axial, appendicular.
What are the 2 types of bone structure?
Compact (cortical). Has osteons and lamellae. Spongy (cancellous, trabecular). No osteons. Has gaps where the bone has been broken down by osteoclasts.
Bone has been optimally arranged to ___________________.
provide maximum stress with minimum weight.
What are the cell types found in bone?
Osteoblasts – Bone matrix synthesizing. Not completely surrounded by bone. Found on the surface of bone near the periosteum or endosteum.
Osteocytes – mature osteoblasts. Morphologically the same as osteoblasts, the only difference is location. Do not produce significant amount of bone matrix. Found deeper in the bone. Located in lacunae.
Osteoclasts – Multinucleated giant cells. Digest bone matrix using HCl and liberate calcium ions into the blood. Derived from monocytes. Form Howship’s lacunae.
What organ controls osteoclasts?
A: Parathyroid (Parathyroid hormone).
When does bone remodeling start?
As soon as there is bone.
What covers the external surface of a bone? The internal?
Periosteum (fibrous and osteogenic layers). Endosteum or osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
How are joints classified?
: Histological structure (fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial) and degree of movement (synarthrodial, diarthrodial.
Describe the fibrous portion of the ECM of cartilage.
Collagen II fibrils line up and associate with complexes of proteoglycan which are on a long core of hyaluronic acid. All secreted by chondroblasts. Glycosaminoglycan (repeating disaccharide units) stick off of the proteoglycan.
Is there perichondrium on articular cartilage?
No, has synovial capsule and fluid
What is endochondral bone? Intramembranous?
cartilage; Intr – within a membrane, osteoblast from bone matrix derived directly from mesenchymal cells)
What is the composition of bone by weight?
65% mineral ( Calcium hydroxyapitite crystals), 10% water, 23% collagen type I, 2% non-collagen proteins)
What is primary bone?
: Woven bone, immature bone. First formed in fetus and after injury. Is replaced by compact bone.