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85 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the unique qualities of water?
-Occur naturally in 3 phases )liquid, gas, solid)
-has greater heat capacity than air or solid
-has greater specific heat
What is heat capacity?
the ratio of the amount of heat energy absorbed by a substance to its corresponding temperature rise.
What is specific heat?
The amount of heat energy that must be absorbed by one gram of a substance to raise its temperature by 1 degree C.
Latent Heat of Fusion
Ice to liquid
-Requires 80 cals (absorbed) from surrounding environment.
Latent Heat of Vaporization
Liquid to Vapor (gas)
-600 cals required (absorbed) from SE
-also called evaporation
Vapor to liquid
-600 cals released to E
ice to vapor
-680cals required (absorbed)
-energy taken from environment
Vapor to Ice
-680 Cals released to E
The Hydrolic Cycle
represents the transfer of water within the earth
What are the transfer mechanisms?
Evaporation, condensation, transpiration, precipitation
Over the ocean, evaporation usually _____ precipitation.
Over the land, precipitation is usually _____ than evaporation.
Over vegetated land, transpiration usually _____ evaporation
expresses moisture content of the atmosphere
Absolute Humidity
The weight of water vapor present in a given volume of air.
weight of water vapor in air
volume of air
When the _______ of air changes, SH also changes
a(n) _________ in volume decreases AH, whereas a(n) ______ in volume increases AH.
increase, decrease
Specific Humidity
Weight of water vapor in a volume per total weight of water vapor and air
weight of water vapor
total weight of vapor & air
Mixing Ratio
weight of water vapor in a volume per weight of air alone (dry air)
weight of water vapor
weight of dry air
SH & MR are not influenced by changes in __________.
air volume
Relative Humidity
ratio of amount of water vapor actually present in the air compared to the amount that could be held by same air if it were saturated (at particular temperature & pressure)

actual water vapor content
maximum water vapor capacity
RH is expressed as a ___________
Dew point temperature
the temp to which air would have to be colled (with no change in air pressure or moisture content) for saturation to occur
Dew point is a good indicator of the air's __________________.
actual water vapor content
Dew forms:
when surface temp drops below dew point
dew is usually associated with ____________________ on clear, calm nites.
radiation cooling
When air temperature drops below freezing, dew dreezes and becomes ________
frozen dew
frost differs from frozen dew in that:
frost forms when deposition occurs.
delicate white crystals form called _________ or white frost
hoar frost
hoar frost exhibits a _________ _________ pattern of ice crystals
treelike branching
Condensation Nuclei
tiny particles in our atmosphere where water vapor condenses on
condensation nucei may include:
-dust particles
-smoke particles from forest fires
-nitric acid particles
-salt particles from ocean sprays
without condensation nuclei in the atmosphere, condensation occurs at a much _____ relative humidity greator than ___%.
higher, 100
this is a condition where ____ occurs.
a cloud resting near the ground
fog may form in two ways:
by cooling-when moist air overlying cold surfaces is cooled below its dew point
by evaporation and mixing-when unsaturated air mixes with saturated air over water surfaces.
4 types of fog
radiation fog, advection fog, upslope fog, and evaporation fog.
radiation fog develops on ____ _____ when _____ _____ is rapid
clear nights, radiation cooling
radiation fog requirements
usually light breezes are required to gently mix moist air on the ground
radiation fog is sometimes called
ground fog
radiation fog often causes temporally ________ _______ near the surface
temperature inversions
usually radiation fog covers _____
small areas
if radiation fog is lifted above the surface, they form:
stratus clouds
advection fog forms when:
warm, moist air moves over a cool surface and is chilled to its dew point.
advection fog usually forms on _____ locations
advection fog is common durring ____ months and covers ____ area and are ____ than radiation fog
summer, extensive, thicker
upslope fog forms when:
moist air flows upward over topographic barrier.
upslope fog is sometimes called:
ovographic fog
upslop fog that covers a wide area may last for:
many days
evaporation fog is produced by:
evaporation from a warm water surface into the cool unsaturated (drier) air above
two types of evaporation fog:
steam fog and frontal or precipitation fog
high clouds:
cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus
-most common
-white featherly
-thin and whispy called mares tail
-ice crystals
-fair, pleasant weather
-small rounded white puffs
-sometimes in rows (rippling)
-ripples like scales on fish (mackerel sky)
-ice crystals
-spread out, thin clouds
-cover wide area
-sun and moon can be seen through
-luminous circle called halo
-ice crystals
-advancing storm
middle clouds
altocumulus & altostratus
-gray, puffy masses
-rolls of parallel waves or bands
-water droplets
-gray or blue (gray in apprearance)
-cover entire sky
-ice crystals and water droplets
-sun or moon dimly visible
-watery sun
low clouds
stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus
-uniform, graish
-covers entire sky
-resembles fog above ground
-sometimes mist or drizzle
-low, lumpy
-rows in patches, or rounded masses
-blue sky visible between cloud elements
-dary gray, wet looking
-rain cloud
-covers entire sky
-continuous light and moderate rain
-no lightning or thunder
vertical development clouds
cumulus, cumulonimbus
-common and familiar
-individual floating cotton with flat base
-takes different shapes
-cumulus may develop to this
-lightning and thunder
-winds mold top into flat anvil
-heavy rains, tornadoes, and hailstones.
unusual clouds
lenticular, banner, pileus, mammatus
-lens shaped
-form on top of one another
form atop and downwind isolated mt. peaks
-form above developing cumulus
-"cap clouds"
-smooth looking clouds
-baglike sacks that hang beaneath cloud
-form when downdrafts occur in a cloud
adiabatic process
-warmer air rises and expands
-cools at is expands
cooling of air in AP raises
as it cools, it is assumed that no _____ is transferred into or out of the parcel
rising parcel of air expands because:
air pressure decreases with elevation
adiabatic cooling
the cooling in temp of the parcel as it rises and expands
if a parcel of air risess high enough, it will cool to its ___ ____
dew point
as a parcel of air descends from aloft, it is _______
as parcel is compressed, it ____, even though no ____ is transferred into the parcel from external air. this is caled _______ _______
warms, heat, adiabatic warming
adiabatic process is a process that takes place without ________ of ______between the parcel of air and its surroundings
transfer of heat
Absolute Stability
prevails when the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate.
rising parcel of air (unsaturated or saturated) is always ______ and ______ than the surrounding air
cooler and heavier
absolute unstable
prevails when the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate.
the rising air (unsaturated or saturated) is always ______ and ______ than the surrounding air
warmer and lighter
conditionally unstable
prevails when the environmental lapse rate lies between dry adiabatic rate and the moist adiabatic rate
the rising air is _____than the surroudning air first and later becomes ___ than the surrounding air
cooler, warmer