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41 Cards in this Set

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precipitation
water in the air in form of rain, hail, sleet, snow, etc.
evaporation
process of liquid water turning into a water vapor
2 factors that determine climate
1. temperature
2. precipitation
climate
the average of all weather conditions through all seasons over a period of time
condensation
water vapor turns back into liquid water
types of climate
1. polar-cold and little rain
2. mountain-cold in winter, cool in summer, moderate rain
3. temperate-cold winters, warm summers, moderate rain
4. tropical-hot all year, moderate to heavy rain
5. desert-hot summers, cool winters, little rain
surface water
water found on the surface in lakes, streams, ponds, puddles, etc.
groundwater
1. water contained in the pores of soil and rocks under the surface.
2. most drinking water comes from the ground
pore
the open spaces that are between rocks and pieces of soil
porosity
1. amount of pore space that a sample of rock or soil contains.
2. not all pores will be the same size
*low porosity-rocks with small pores
*high porosity-rocks with big pores
permeable
1. when soil or rock has many well-connected pores that allow groundwater to flow through it
2. limestone is very permeable
impermeable
1. not permeable
2. granite
aquifer
1. a layer of permeable rock that water can flow freely
2. many times aquifers act as a reservoir(storage container)
how does water get into an aquifer
1. water runs off or soaks into the ground
2. if it soaks into the ground it is groundwater
3. gravity pulls the groundwater through all of the permeable layers of rock
4. eventually the water hits a layer of impermeable rock and has to stop
parts of an aquifer
1. zone Aeration- permeable layers of rock that have pores filled with air
2. zone of Saturation-the layers of permeable rock that have pors full of water
3. water table-the "line" created by the surface of the water in the aquifer.
4. recharge zone-the area of land that allows water to soak into the aquifer
groundwater flow
1. groundwater does not just sit in the aquifer, it flows
2. it is like a river-it flows from higher elevations to lower elevations
how do we get our drinking water out of the ground
1. wells-pipe is dug into the ground(goes through permeable rock)
2. water is pumped through the pipe
artesian well
a well that does not need a pump to get water out
pollution sources
1. landfills
2. road run-off
3. septic tanks
4. underground gas tanks
5. agriculture run-off
6. mining and industrial waste
electric circuit
1. connects electrical components
2. looped
electric fuse
connects directly into a circuit
voltage
amount of strength of electrons flowing through a wire(think bright lights and dim lights)
how does static electricity work?
1. an imbalance between positive and negative charges
2. charges are attracted to each other
how does electricity work
1. atoms move around
2. electrons in the atoms move from one atom to another, producing energy
how does electricity get to our house
1. power staton releases huge amounts of electricity
2. electricity moves along the wires until it reaches a transformer.
3. transformer weakens the current so it can flow to our house
4. curent then flows into 3 wires that goes to our house
what does it mean to complete the circuit
closing the gap so electricity will move
how does a light switch work
the switch creates a gap in the circuit and the lights turn off. you turn the light back on and the switch then closes the gap and the light comes on
circuit breaker
1. heats up
2. expands
3. turns off a switch-creates a gap in the flow of electricity
magnetic
it will attract iron or steel
magnetic field
the space around the magnet where the force of the magnet can be seen or felt
magnetic force
the ability and strength of the magnet to "push" or "pull" an object
magnetism
the invisible force of the magnet
poles
the ends of the magnet.
attract
opposite ends attract or "pull" towards each other
North and South
repel
the same ends push away from each other:
north and north
south and south
rule of magnetism
like ends repel
opposite ends attract
conductor
materials that allow electricity to flow freely
insulator
stops the flow of electricity
electric current
a stream of electrons are moving through a conductor
alternating current
(parallel circuit)
1. electricity changes direction
2. wire is coiled around an iron core
3. produces a magnetic field
direct current
(series circuit)
current moves in 1 direction only