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76 Cards in this Set

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What Does Natural Air consist of?
Dry air plus varoius amounts of water vapor and condensation nuclei.
Height of Troposphere:
at equator:
at poles:
E: 60,000ft
P: 25,000ft
Where does weather occur?
Troposphere
What are the conditions affecting atmosphere circulation (3-cell theory)
1. uneven heating of earth's surface
2. Rotation of the earth
3. Coriolis force
What direction are the prevailing winds in U.S.:
W to E
(Westerly)
What are the 4 methods of heat transfer?
Radiation
Conduction
Convection
Advection
Transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves
Radiation
Transfer of heat by physical contact
Conduction
transfer of heatby way of gas
Convection
Horizontal movement and is greater than vertical movement
Advection
Standard lapse rate
2 deg per 1000ft
When temperature increases with altitude rather than decreases
temperature inversions (warmer air above colder air)
Ca
cP
mP
mT
cT
E
Continental artic-coldest dry
Continental polar-cold dry
Maritime polar-cold moist
Maritime tropical-warm moist
Continental tropical-warm dry
equatorial - warmest moist
W stands for...
Stable
k stands for
unstable
Standard MSL pressures:
Mercury
Millibars
Mercury 29.92
Millibars 1013.2 mb or hp
elongated area of high pressure
ridge
elongated area of low bressure
trough
A _______ pressure gradient force is indicated by closely apaced isobars. (strong winds)
Strong / Steep
A _______ pressure gradient force is indicated by widely spaced isobars (light to moderate winds)
Weak / flat
_____ force acts perpendicular to the right of the wind (on any steered objects on the northern hemisphere)
Coriolis force
Above the friciton level (_____ ft) coriolis modifies gradient and causes a ____ flow parallel to the isobars.
2000
clockwise
Below friction lever 2000ft winds flow across isobars high to low pressure.... How many degrees?
30 degrees left
Flying High to Low
Look out below
you are reading higher on your altimeter than you truly are
the process when vapor changes directly to ice or ice to vapor. (frost)
Sublimation
a processs in which the temp of a gas (air) is changed without the addition or deletion of heat energy.
Adiabatic cooling/heating
Dry cooing rate:
-3 deg. ber 1000 ft occurs when air is rising an not saturated.
Moist cooling rate
1.5 degrees per 1000ft occurs after saturation takes place in rising air.
an altitude at which the temp. of the air inside the pa4cel of air being lifted becomes the same as the surrounding air because of the release of the latent heat of condensation.
Lever of Free Convection (LFC)
formation of clouds is the direct result of _________
Saturation (generally the result of cooling)
clouds les than 6500 feet
Cu
Cb
St
Sc
Ns
clouds middle 6500ft to 20,000ft
As
Ac
High clouds aboce 20,000ft
Ci
Cs
Cc
What are the 2 basic types of clouds?
Cumulous

Stratus
Cause of frontal weather
the lifting of warm moist air by colder more dense air (all fronts have a temp. inversion)
Cold fornt slope ratio:
1:80
what type of front has the worst weather?
Cold
What direction do cold fronts move? Warm Fronts?
NW to SE
Sw to NE
What is the slope of the warm front? Speed?
1:200

15Kts
What is the average speed of a cold front? When is a squall line possibly formed?
25kts (50 miles wide)

>25kts
Stationary front is similar to a ? Speed? movement?
Warm front
0-5kts
unpredictable
Flight procedure for occlusion?
avoid by 50 miles
Fligh proced. for warm fronts and stationary fronts?
have alternates
Cold front flight proced.?
Don't go
What type fog is caused by radiation cooling and light winds 2-5 kts cooling lower layer of air to near dew point. Dissipates after sunrise and winds> 5kts
Radiation fog
what type fog requires warm, moist air flowing over a cool surface?
Advection fog
(deep moving widespread winds up to 15kts.)
What type fog cools adiabatically?
upslope fog
What fog cools rapidly at night and becomes more dense
Valley fog
Ice formed ) to -20 deg.
Rime ice
Ice formed 0 to -10 deg.
clear ice
Freezing rain is most common with ____ fronts.
Warm
Clear ice formation on Blades will result in a loss of What?
Autorotative capability
2 types of thunderstorms
Air mass - thermal convection
-orographic(mechanical)

Frontal - cold front, squall line, warm front
What stage of a thunderstorm is most severe?
Mature stage
Procedures for Air mass thunderstorm?
Circumnavigate by at least 20 miles
in a mountain wave the most dangerous feature is the what?
Downdraft on the leeward side (turbulence)
What is the most familiar sign of mountain wave conditions?
Lenticular clouds formed on the crest of the waves.
Where do rotor clouds form on mountain waves? (dark ominous, rolling appearance, stationary)
at height
of mountain ridge
When approaching mountain range what is the procedure for mountain wave crossing?
approach 45 deg angle, altitude as high as practicable clear of clouds
What are the 3 types of weather reports?
METAR, SPECI, COR
Weather descriptors:
BC
FZ
SH
TS
BC - patches
FZ - Supercooled/ freezing
SH - showers
TS - Thunderstorms
Obstructions to visibility are reported when?
when < 7sm
Obstructions abbrev.
FG
HZ
FU
DU
BR
FG - fog
HZ - haze
FU - smoke
DU - dust
BR - mist
Intensity indicators
+
_
no sign - moderate
+ heavy
- Light
the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as Broken or Overcast.
Ceiling
METAR reports are put out when?
hourly
Weather charts are transmitted every ___ hrs.
3 hrs
Info for WX charts are updated from that report?
METAR
Isobar spacing is usually ____ millibars?
4
in the weather depiction guide, visibility in excess of 6 sm are/not ploted.
Not plotted
Radar summary charts are issured how often?
Every hour
A Terminal Aerodrome Forecast is isued how many times per day?
4
TAF is a consise statement of the expected meteorological conditions at an airport usually for __ hours.
24
Winds aloft chart data is valid for __ hours.
12
on TAF "9999" means:
Vis > 6 sm
On Winds Aloft Chart "99" means:
Winds Less than 5 knots - light and variable