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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What began when power-driven machinery in factories replaced the work done in homes?
Industrial revolution
What was an advantage of factory work?
Mass quanities of goods produced
Before the IR, what did people mostly rely on to make a living?
Farming
Why, before the IR, were families relatively small?
Very high infant death rate (1/3)
What was the life expectancy before the IR?
40 years
About what percent of Europe's population lived in towns or cities?
25%
In the 1700s, what was the largest city in Europe, with what population?
London, about 700,000
Who was a famous British novelist in London in the early 1800s?
Charles Dickens
Where did most people liven in preindustrial times?
Small country villages with a few hundred people
Before the IR, who controlled the majority of the village land, renting most of it to small farming families?
Wealthy landowners
What were the public lands that most villages had?
Village commons
Why were village economies limited to the local area?
transporting goods was difficult, unprofitable
Before the IR, what did all daily activities revolve around for the peasants?
Farming
Before the IR: In addition to farming, many people worked where?
Small industries, coal mines
Before the IR, what was the relationship between small factories and farms?
Harvest season- factory workers helped with harvest; Winter- farmers worked in factories
In Great Britain (pre-IR), what was the industry that was almost as popular as farming?
woolen industry
What is when merchants hired workers to produce woolens in their own homes?
domestic system
What did the domestic system depend on?
a network of workers
What allowed landowners to enclose property?
enclosure movement
What is money to invest in labor, machines, and raw materials?
Capital
What was England's greatest resource?
labor
Business people?
entrepreneurs
Who invented the flying shuttle?
John Kay
Who invented the spinning jenny?
James Hargreaves
Who developed the water frame?
Richard Arkwright
Who invented the power loom?
Edmund Cartwright
Who created the spinning mule?
crompton
Who developed the cotton gin?
Eli Whitney
Who designed the steam engine?
James Watt
Who developed methods to produce steel from iron?
Henry Bessemer, William Kelly
What involves continually expanding factories or investing in new businesses?
industrial capitalism
Who contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts?
Eli Whitney
Who encouraged manufacturers to dived tasks into detailed and specific segments of a step-by-step procedure?
Fred Taylor
Who used the assembly line to make Model Ts?
Henry ford
What is a business org involving two or more entrepreneurs who can raise more capital and take on more business than if each went in alone?
partnership
What takes the idea of partnership many steps further (owned by stockholders...)?
Corporations
What is the lowest point in the business cycle?
depression
Who created the telegraph?
morse
Who devised the wireless telegraph?
marconi
Who invented the telephone?
alex graham bell
Who invented the phonograph?
Thomas Edison
Who invented the incandescent lightbulb?
Thomas Edison
Who developed an oil burning motor?
Rudolph Diesel
Who streamlined the dirigible?
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
What is a worker association called?
labor union
What was when union leaders and an employer meet together to discuss problems and reach an agreement?
collective bargaining