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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Thiamin functions:
Energy metabolism (coenzyme TPP)
Nerve function
Synthesize and regulate neurotransmitters
Thiamin sources:
Enriched or whole grain, Pork, legumes, liver, sweet potatoes
Thiamin deficiency:
Beriberi: Muscle weakness, loss of appetite
Wernicke-Korakoss Syndrome - common cause of alcohol induced. It is mental confusion, constant eye movements
Thiamin Toxicity:
Thiamine's stability is affected by:
Heating and alkalinity
Riboflavin functions:
Accepts and donates electrons. So it participates in oxidation-reduction reactions.

Energy metabolism
Removes ammonia during deamination.
Associated with antioxidant performance of glutathione peroxidase
Riboflavin sources:
Grain products, milk and dairy products, liver and kidney
Riboflavin deficiencies:
None, except ariboflavinosis.

B2 deficiency make lead to B6 deficiency.
Riboflavin toxicity:
Riboflavin's stability is affected by:
It is resistant to acid, heat, and oxidation.

But it breaks down in light.
Niacin functions:
Coenymes are NAD and NADP.

Oxidation-reduction reactions
Energy metabolism
Niacin sources:
Whole grains, meat, poultry, fish, seafood.

The form tryptophan is found in protein rich animal foods.

P.S. To convert tryptophan to niacin, the body needs B6 and Fe. Pregnancy also enhances absorption.
Niacin deficienicies:`

Fe and B6 also contribute to pellagra.
Niacin toxicity:
While it lowers LDL levels and raides HDL levels, it causes flushing of the face, itching, headahces, and blurred vision.
Niacin is affected by:
Pantothenic Acid functions:
Coenzyme: Coenzyme A

Energy metabolism
Biosynthesizes neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, and hemoglobin.
Pantothenic Acid sources:
It is widespread. SOurces are: chicken, beef, liver, kidnet, yeast, egg yolk, and whole grains.
Pantothenic Acid deficiencies:
None, unles it is induced.

Symptoms are: reslessness, fatique, aparthy, malaise, nausea, etc.
Pantothenic Acid toxicity:
Pantothenic Acid is affected by:
Freezing and canning
Processing and refining
Biotin functions:
Biotin coenzyme is released from biocytin.

Functions: Catalyze carboxylation
Energy metabolism
Amino Acid metabolism
Glycogen synthesis
Fat synthesis
DNA synthesis
Biotin sources:
Liver, cauliflower, egg yolks
Biotin deficiencies:
No name, but deficiency causes hair loss, loss of appetitte, rash, and neurologic disorder. Can delay growth and development.
Biotin toxicities:
Biotin is affected by:
Alkaline pH
B6 functions:
Coenzymes PLP and PMP

Energy metabolism
Transamination to form Amino Acids
Blood Cell Synthesis
Carbohtdrate Metabolism
Neurotransmitter Synthesis
Synthesis of niacin
B6 sources:
meat, fish, poultry, noncitrus fruits, whole grains, beef liver
B6 deficiencyies:
Impaired synthesis of protein and cell metabolism.
Disturbs the binding of O to hemoglbin causing MICROCYIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA
Low intake can lead to high levels of homocysteine
B6 toxicities:
Irreversible nerve damage
B6 is affected by:
Temperature and heat
Folate functions:
Coenzyme THFA

Functions: One-carbon transfers
Activates B12 coenzyme
DNA synthesis
Folate sources:
Dark green vegetables, legumes
Folate deficiencies:
Most prevalent of all deficienes!

Increase levels of homosyysteine
Impairs DNA and WBC synthesis
Neural tube defects
Megaloblastic anemia
Folate toxicity:
Because it work so closely with B12, it can mask a B12 deficiency. Causes neurological problems, hives, or respiratory diseaes.
Folate is affected by:
UV Light
Exposure to Oxygen

(Vitamin C protects folate from oxygen).
B12 functions:
Coenzyme cyancobalamin

Functions: Activates folate coenzyme
Maintains mylin sheath
B12 sources:
Only animal foods and bacteria in our stomach.

Animal foods: Milk, cerieal, some fish
B12 toxicity:
B12 deficiencies:
Megaloblastic anemia but nerve deteriation also
B12 is affected by: