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48 Cards in this Set

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What is the distribution percentage of water use in Canada
Thermal power generation 64%
Manufacturing 14%
Municipal 12%
Agriculture 9%
Mining 1%
What is transpiration?
Transpiration is the evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants. Plants absorb soilwater through their roots and this water can originate from deep in the soil.
How much E.Coli is allowed in drinking water.
None
What is the major difference between water guidelines and standards?
Aesthetic objectives.
Name 5 aesthetic objectives
1. Odour
2. Taste
3. Colour
4. Temperature
5. Turbidity
What is the max concentration of turbidity allowed in water?
1 NTU
What does NTU stand for?
Nephalocmetric tubidity units
How is turbidity measured?
Turbidity is measured by light defraction. The higher the defraction the higher the turbidity.
If water disinfected what is the max NTU allowed?
5
What causes odour in water?
-algea
-disolved gases
What accounts for taste in water?
algea
disolved gases
How is water colour measured.
measured by true colour units (TCU's).
TCU's should be less than what number?
15
What is water colour caused by?
Oxidation
decaying vegetables
algea
Can disolved materials be removed?
No
What temperature should water be at to reduce bacterial growth?
<15C
What does MAC stand for?
Mycobacterium avium Complex
What are MAC levels based on?
2 L/Day for 35 years
What two ways are MAC levels found?
1. Human studies by accidental exposure.
2. Animal studies.
1L = how many Kg
1
What are the 2 sources of lead that come in contact with humans?
water and food
What 3 ways are lead absorbed into the body?
skin
water
food
What part of body does lead absorb into?
bones
What age group is most susceptable to lead poisioning?
< 6 and pregnant women
What are the signs of chronic lead toxicity > 10 ppm
tired
sleepiness
headache
joint pain
gastrointestinal
over the years - muscle weakness, pyschometric tests decrease.
children lower IQ and delinquency.
Is lead carcinogenic?
No evidence.
What are the effects of lead in animals?
Kidney tumours.
What causes high turbidity in summer?
spring runoff
algea
What is the acceptable concentration for benzene?
5ppb
What is benzene used for
Solvent
Degreaser
What percentage of benzene is found in gas
1 to 2%
What part of the body does benzene concentrate
Fat
Is benzene carcinogenic?
yes
What is primary and secondary entry into body for benzene?
primary: Inhalation
secondary: food
Benzene is easily absorbed into the skin (T/F)
F
Benzene can be removed by water treatment (T/F)
F
What is the max protective level of benzene?
6.6 ug/L
What is the major source of cadmium in humans.
food
What is the protective limit of cadmium in body
5ppb
What is the source of cadmium
metals
What function does cadmium perform in industry
prevents corrosion
Name 3 industries where cadmium is used.
1. Cryptography
2. Battery
3. pesticides
What kind of illness can cadmium poisioning lead to?
Liver and Kidney damage. Is also a toxicant.
What is the standard ppm for Trichloromethane?
.100 ppm
How many ppb does .100 ppm equal?
100ppb
Can TCM's be removed from water in water treatment plant?
No
What percentage of bladder cancers are due to TCM's
10-13%
What is the exposure of TCM's that lead to cancer?
> 50 ppb for 35 years