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184 Cards in this Set

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WATER VAPOR
invisible
INVISIBLE GAS
CONDENSATION
steam
CHANGE FROM WATER VAPOR TO LIQUID WATER
SPECIFIC HUMIDITY
ACTUAL AMOUNT OF WATER VAPOR IN THE AIR @ GIVEN TIME
SATURATED HUMIDITY
rate
WATER VAPOR = RATE OF EVAPORATION

SATURATED HUMIDITY
rate of evaporation
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
HOW NEAR AIR IS TO ITS MAXIMIM CAPACITY FOR HOLDING WATER VAPOR
PSYCHROMETER
INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE HUMIDITY
EXAMPLE OF CONDENSATION
IF THE AIR CONTINUES TO COOL PAST THE POINT OF SATURATION CONDENSATION OCCURS
EXAMPLE OF WATER VAPOR
WATER VAPOR MAY CONDENSE INTO DROPLETS FORMING A CLOUD -OR-FOG
DEW POINT
TEMPERATURE @ WHICH SATURATION OCCURS & CONDENSATION BEGINS
condense into water, called dew.
HOW DOES 'DEW' FORM
droplets
FROM DROPLETS OF CONDENSED WATER VAPOR
dew
droplets water vapor
2 CONDITIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR WATER VAPOR TO CONDENSE
1.) AIR MUST BE MATERIAL FOR WATER VAPOR TO CONDENSE ONTO

2.) AIR MUST BE CLOSE TO -OR- BELOW ITS DEW POINT
CONDENSATION NUCLEI
WHEN FOG -OR- CLOUDS FORM, THE WATER VAPOR IS CONDENSING ON TINY PARTICLES
SUPERSATURATED
AIR COOLED BELOW ITS DEW POINT
NAME 3 WAYS THAT AIR MAY COOL -OR- LOSE HEAT
-CONTACT W/COLDER SURFACE
-RADIATION OF HEAT
-MIXING W/ COLDER AIR
-EXPANSION AS IT RISES
WHY DURING THE NIGHT, DO SURFACES BECOME COOLER THAN THE AIR
THEY LOSE HEAT MORE RAPIDLY THAN AIR DOES
HOW DOES FOG FORM
AS WATER VAPOR CONDENSES IN THE AIR, TINY DROPLETS FILL THE AIR
WHEN DOES FOG FORM
COLD SURFACE COOLS THE WARM MOIST AIR ABOVE IT
HOW DOES RADIATION FOG FORM
NIGHT SKY IS CLEAR;THE GROUND LOSES HEAT RAPIDLY THROUGH RADIATION
COMMON IN RIVER VALLEYS AND NEAR LAKES
HOW DOES AVECTION FOG FORM
WHEN ITS WARM & MOIST; WIND BLOWS OVER SNOW-COVERED GROUND
HOW DO CLOUDS FORM
WHNE AIR COOLS TO ITS DEW POINT
FORM @ ANY ALTITUDE
WHAt ARE CLOUDS MADE OF
WATER DROPLETS
WHAT ARE THE 3 BASIC 'FORMS' OF CLOUDS
-CUMULOUS
-STRATUS
-CIRRUS
HOW DOES THE SHAPE OF THE CLOUD SHOW
HOW AIR IS MOVING THROUGH IT
HOW ARE CLOUDS 'CLASSIFIED'
height
shape
-HEIGHT//ALTITUDE((LOW,MIDDLE,
HIGH..)

-THEIR SHAPE
WHAT ARE THE 4 'TYPES' OF CLOUDS
-LOW
-MIDDLE
-HIGH
-CLOUDS OF VERTICAL
WHAT CLOUD IS FORMED BY HORIZONTAL AIR MOVEMENTS
STRATIFORM CLOUDS
()LAYERED CLOUDS))
WHAT CLOUD IS FORMED BY VERTICAL AIR MOVEMENTS
CUMULIFORM
((GROW UPWARDS IN GREAT PUFFS))
WHERE DO CLOUDS HAVE HIGH ALTITUDES
ALONG THE EQUATOR & LOWER IN THE POLAR REGIONS
DESCRIBE 'CUMULUS' CLOUDS
cool whip
FLUFFY CLOUDS W/FLAT BASES
DESCRIBE 'STARTUS' CLOUDS
CLOUDS THAT FORM IN LAYERS
((LAYERED, LOW CLOUDS))
Flat and straight = stratus
DESCRIBE 'CIRRUS' CLOUDS
circus bomb
HIGH FEATHERY ICE CLOUDS
((THIN W/ FKAT FLUFF ENDS))
CONDENSATION LEVEL
ATMOSPHEREIC LEVEL WHICH CONDENSATION OCCURS
DRY-ADIABATIC LEVEL
(rate air)
RATE @ WHICH AIR COOLS AS IT RISES
DRY-ADIABATIC LEVEL
(rate air)(cools)
'MOIST'-ADIBIATIC LEVEL
RATE @ WHICH 'SATURATED' AIR COOLS AS IT RISES
HOW DO CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS FORM
MOIST AIR RISES & COOLS TO ITS DEW POINT
HOW DO LAYERED CLOUDS FORM
STABLE AIR; AIR CANT MOVE UP OR DOWN SO IT SPREADS OUT HORIZONTALLY
AS WARM AIR RISES....
IT EXPANDS & ITS TEMPERATURE & DEW POINT DECREASE
PRECIPITATION
ANY FORM OF WATER THAT FALLS FROM A CLOUD
SLEET
FROZEN RAIN DROPS
FREEZING RAIN
SUPER-COOLED RAINDROPS
HAIL
IRREGULAR CLUMPS OF ICE
NAME 5 TYPES OF PRECIPITATION
-HAIL
-SLEET
-SNOW
-RAIN
-FREEZING RAIN
GLACIER
compacted
LARGE MASS OF COMPACTED SNOW & ICE
SNOW LINE
LOWEST ELEVATION
FIRN
ice material
BURIED SNOW; COMPACTED;COMPRESSED & RECYSTALIZES ICE MATERIAL
CONTINENTIAL GLACIER
GLACIER THAT MOVES W/ IN VALLEY WALLS
ICE CAP
GLACIER IS LESS THAN 50,00 SQUARE KILOMETERS IN AREA
CREVASSE
steep
CREVASSE
=steep downwards slope
STEEP DOWNWARDS SLOPE; GREAT FISSURES CARACKS
ICE FRONT
GLACIERS THAT LOSE ICE THROUGH MELTING
CALVING
GREAT BLOBKS BREAK OFF TO BECOME ICEBERG
TILL
MATERIAL DEPOSITED BY GLACIAL ICE
MORAINE
total OF GLACIAL TILL
STRATIONS
SAND PEBBLES AND SHARP BOULDERS LEAVE LONG PARALELL
GLACIAL VALLEY
U SHAPED VALLEY
CIRQUE
cirrular
CIRQUE
STEMI-cirrular BASIN
ERRATIC
LARGE BOULDERS TRANSPORTED BY GLACIERS
OUTWASH
wash=water
wash=water


MATERIAL DEPOSITED BY GLACIAL MELTWATER
DRUMLIN
GROUP OF HILLS;LONG SMOOTH CANOE SHAPED
ESKER
WINDING RIDGES; FORM WHEN A GLACIER MELTS
OUTWASH PLAIN
FRONT OF GLACIERS ;OVERLAP;FORM FLAT AREA
KAME
SMALL CONE-SHAPED HILLS OF SAND & GRAVEL
KETTLE
kelloggs cereal
BOWL-SHAPED HALLOWS FOUND IN MORAINS 7 OUTWASH PLAINS
BEACH
AREA OF SHORE BETWEEN THE HIGH-TIDE LEVEL & LOW-TIDE LEVEL
DEFLATION
REMOVAL OF LOOSE ROCK PARTICLES BY THE WIND
DESERT PAVEMENT
REMAING SURFACE; AFTER DESERT SANDS ARE BLOWN AWAY
DUST STORM
sand
STRONG STEADY WINDS;LIFT SILT & CLAY FROM TOPSOIL
FETCH
LENGTH OF OPEN WATER OVER WHCICH WIND BLOWS
FJORD
STEEP-SIDED BAYS
LOESS
WHEN ERODED;CLIFF-LIKE SLOPES
PERIOD
TIME IT TAKES ONE WAVELENGTH TO PASS A CERTAIN POINT
SPEED=WAVELENGTH/ PERIOD
REFRACTION
WAVE REACHES SHALLOW WATER;SWING UNTIL IT APPROACHES THE SHORELINE
((SWINGING -OR- BENDING
SANDBAR
CURRENT CARRIES ENOUGH SAND AND FORMS SANDBAR
SEDIMENTS CARRIED INLAND
SAND DUNE
HILLS OF SAND DEPOSITED BY WINDS
VENTIFACT
SMALL ROCKS INTO SHAPES
BLASTS OF DESERT SAND
GRIND BOULDERS
AND SMALL ROCKS INTO SHAPES
WAVE HEIGHT
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN;WAVES HEIGHT POINT & LOW POINT
WAVELENGTH
distance
DISTANCE FROM ONE CREST TO THE NEXT
AIR POLLUTANT
particle
ANY AIRBORNE GAS OR-PARTICLE;HARMS HUMANS -OR-ENVIRONMENT
AIR POLLUTANT
CONDUCTION
TRANSFER OF HEAT ENERGY THROUGH COLLISIONS OF ATOMS -OR- MOLECULES
HEAT
energy
TOTAL KINETIC ENERGY OF ALL PARTICLES OF THE SUBSTANCE
INSOLATION
INCOMING----SOLAR---- -RADIATION
IN(coming)-(solar)-(radia)TION
IONOSPHERE
-1ST LAYER;ON TOP;
-LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION;REFLECTS RADIO WAVES BACK TO EARTH
-AURORAS
-IONIZED
TEMPERATURE GETS HOTTER
**FILLED W/ CHARGED PARTICLES**
ISOTHERM
temperature
ISOTHERM
TEMPERATURE OZONES ON THE MAP

LINES SEPERArating
LINES CONNECT PLACES W/ THE SAME TEMP.
MESOSPHERE
IS ON TOP OF THE STRATOSPHERE;

***METEORS BURN UP WHILE ENTERING EARTHS ATMOSPHERE***
OZONEV
ABSORBS ULTAVIOLET RAYS FROM THE SUN;& RELEASES SOME ENERGY IN FORM OF HEAT

1 THERMOSPHERE
2 MESOSPHERE
3 STRATOSPHERE
4 TROPOSPHERE
RADIATION
TRANSFER OF ENERGY; THROUGH SPACE IN THE FORM OF VISIBLE LIGHT
STRATOSPHERE
top
s comes before t in alphabet
LOCATED ABOVE THE TOP OF THE TROPOSPHERE
DRY LAYER
TEMPERATURE
MEASURE OF THE AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE ATOMS -OR- MOLECULES IN THAT SUBSTANCE
TEMPERATURE INVERSION
-AIR @ EARTHS SURFACE IS COLDER THAN AIR ABOVE,
-SO CONNECTION DOESNT OCCUR
THERMOSPHERE
4TH LAYER;LOCATED ABLOVE MESOSPHERE
BLOCK OUT RADIATION
TRAVEL UP GETS COLDER BEACUSE OF THIN AIR
TROPOSPHERE
weather occurs
THE LOWEST LAYER IN THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE

******WEATHER OCCURS****
AIR PRESSURE
air pushes
ATMOSPHERE PUSHES DOWN ON EARTH'S SURFACE
CORIOLIS EFFECT
curving
OBJECT;FREELY OVER EARTH SUR; CURVING AWAY FROM ITS OWN PATH
GREATEST NEAR POLES & LEAST NEAR EQUATOR
HIGH-PESSURE AREA
ISOBARS-AIR INCREASE TOWARDS CENTER

isobars
line that joins points having =air pressure
INTERTROPICAL CONVERSENIC ZONE
WARM RISING AIR CREATES LOW-PRESSURE ZONE @ SURFACE
ISOBARS
LINE THAT JOINS POINTS HAVING = AIR PRESSURE
ISOBARS
(bar graph)
JET STREAM
fast
PACKS OF SWIFLY MOVING WINDS
jet stream
jet ski
fast winds
LOW PRESSURE AREA
ISOBARS-AIR DECREASES TOWARDS CENTER
MIDDLE LATITUDE
30-60 DEG.
***united states SURFACE WINDS CHANGE***
MONSOON
seasonally
WINDS THAT CHANGE DIRECTION SEASONALLY
WINTER;COLD & DRY
SUMMER:WARM & MOIST
POLAR FRONT
POLAR FRONT
cold fronts warm air

AIR FLOWING AWAY FROM THE POLAR REGION COLLIDES W/ WARMER AIR MOVING UP FROM THE LOWER LATITUDES
PRESSURE GRADIENT
PRESSURE CHANGE DIVIDED BY DISTANCE OVER WHICH PRESSURE CHANGES YIELDS
PREVAILLING WINDS
WINDS THAT BLOW FROM THE SAME DIRECTION

EX//TRADE WINDS
TRADE WINDS
settle
WARM & STEADY
SEA BREEZES
WINDS THAT BLOW ALONG THE OCEAN ONTO LAND
AIR MASS
LARGE BODY OF AIR;
LOWER TROPOSPHERE
BLIZZARD
HEAVY/BLOWING SNOW
WINTER STORM
COLD FRONT
BOUNDARY BETWEEN;
-COLD AIR MASS &
-WARMER MASS DISPLACING
FRONT
BOUNDARY THAT SEPERATES OPPOSING AIR MASSES
HURRICANE
LARGE;ROTATING STORM
-TROPICAL ORGIN
LIGHTNING
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

EX//
THUNDERCLOUD TO THE GROUND
METEROLOGY
-STUDY OF EARTHS ATMOSPHERE
-WEATHER PREDICTIONS
OCCLUDED FRONT
COLD FRONT 'CATCHES UP' TO WARM FRONT
SUFFIR-SIMPSON SCALE
SCALE;MEASURE HURRICANE STRENGTH
EQUAL LINE
FRONTAL THUNDERSTORMS
-OCCUR IN LINES AHEAD OF THE FRONT
SATATIONARY MODEL
-DATA ON MAP
-METEROLOGISTS CREATE WEATHER MAPS
STATIONARY FRONT
non
A FRONT THATS NOT MOVING FORWARD
STORM SURGE
STRONG WINDS
-BLOW WATER INTO BROAD DOME

CAN RISE SEA-LEVEL METERS HIGHER
SUPER CELL
LARGE SINGLE-CELLED THUNDERSTORM
-STRONG UPDRAFTS
THUNDERSTORM
-STORMS W/ LIGHTNING
-THUNDER
-RAIN
****CUMUL. CLOUDS***
TORNADO
ROTATING SOLUMN OF AIR
-USUALLY TOUCHES GROUND
-moving wind cirrular
WARM FRONT
BOUNDARY BETWEEN AIR MASSES
WARM AIR DISPLACES COLD AIR
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
ENERGY THAT TRAVEL IN WAVES
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION CONTIMUUM
LONGEST WAVELENGTH ON ONE END & SHORT ON THE OTHER
CONTINOUS SPECTRUM
UNBROKEN BAND OF COLORS
LIGHT OF ALL VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS
EMISSION SPECTRUM
uneven
LIGHT OF ONLY CERTAIN WAVELENGTHSS

UNEVENLY SPACES LINES;
DIFFERENT COLOR & BRIGHTNESS
ABSORPTION SPECTRUM
CONTINUOS SPECTRUM CROSSED BY DARK LINES
DROPPLER EFFECT
-STARS ARE MADE OF
-HOW THEY ARE MOVING IN RELATION TO EARTH
CONSELLATION
GROUPS OF STARS
APPARENT MAGNITUDE
MEASURE/STARS BIGHTNESS
ASTRONOMICAL UNIT
150 MILLION KILOMETERS
DISTANCE;EARTH TO SUN
LIGHT-YEAR
DIST. RAY OF LIGHT TRAVELS IN 1 YEAR
PARSEC
=3.258 LIGHT YEARS
LUMINOSITY
ACTUAL BRIGHTNESS OF A STAR
SIZE & TEMPERATure
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE
actual
actual BRIGHTNESS/STAR @ 10 PARSECS FROM EARTH

BRIGHTNESS WOULD BE IF ALL STARS WERE @ SAME DISTANCE
CEPHELD VARIABLES
PULSATING STAR
SUPERGIANT
CYLES OF BRIGHTNESS
MAIN SEQUENCE
DIAGRAM
LUMINOSITY
GIANT STAR
DIAMETER=10x SUN
SUPERGIANTS
=MORE THAN 100 X SUN
WHITE DWARF
STARS NEAR END OF LIFE
NUBULA
CLOUD OF GAS & DUST
STAR IS BORN
PLANETARY NEBULA
HALO OF GASES
SUPERNOVA
BURST OF LIGHT
NEUTRON STAR
SUPERNOVA CORE LEFTOVERS
PULSAR
pulse star
'up beat'
SPINNING NEUTRON STAR
BLACK HOLE
REMNANT OF A STAR
=15X SUN
GALAXIES
MILLIONS/BILLIONS GROUP/STARS
QUASAR
DISTANT OBJECTS
BIG BANG MODEL
HOW UNIVERSE WAS CREATED
PALEONTOLOGY
STUDY/PREHISTORIC TIMES
MOLD
HOLLOW DEPRESSION LEFT IN ROCK
CAST
MINERALS FILL THE MOLD
TRACE FOSSIL
IMPRESSIONS LEFT IN ROCK

EX//
TRAILS
FOOTPRINTS
BITEMARKS
RELEATIVE DATING
NOT ACTUAL DATES
RELEATIVE TIME
STRATA
SEDIMENTARY ROCK-OVER TIME COMPRESSED INTO LAYERS
UNCONFORMITY
LAYERS OF ROCK ARE MISSING IN STRATA SEQUENCE
CORRELATION
MATCHING LAYERS OF ROCK
CORRELATION
(layers of rock)
INDEX FOSSILS
REMAINS OF ORGANISMS
PARTICULAR TIME SEGMENT OF EARTHS HISTORY
KEY BED
SINGLE ROCK LAYER
-UNIQUE,WIDESPREAD
--LIKE INDEX FOSSIL
ABSOLUTE TIME
actual
ACTUAL DATES OF EVENTS
VARVE
ANY SEDIMENT; DEPOSITED ON YEARLY CYCLE
RADIOACTIVE DECAY
PROCESS;RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES CAPTURE TINY PARTICLES
PARENT ISOTOPE
ORIGINAL ELEMENT
DAUGHTER ISOTOPE
PRODUCT OF DECAY
HALF-LIFE
TIME;HALF ATOMS TO DECAY TO A STABLE PORDUCT
RADIOMETRIC DATING
RADIOACTIVITY & HALF-LIVES OF ELEMENTS TO MEASURE TIME
GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE
MAJOR EVENTS
EARTH PAST
ROCK RECORDS
EON
longest
LONGEST SEGMENT OF GEOLOGICAL TIME
ERA
-PALEOZOIC-ROCKS FORM
-MESOZONIC-DINOSAURS
-CENOZOIC-ICE AGE
PERIOD
EARS ASRE DIVIDED INTO
EPOCH
GEOLOGICAL PERIODS DIVIDED
BRIEF
EVOLUTION
PROCESS;
CHANGE;
NEW LIFE FORMS
NATURAL SELECTION
DARWIN;THEORY
PRECAMBRIAN
BEFORE PALEZOIC ERA
4 BILLION YEARS
before dinosaurs
SHIELD
EXPOSED AREA OF CRATON
STROMATOLITES
(TRAPPED)
TRAPPED SEDIMENTS FORM LAYERED DOMES
TRILOBITE
PRESERVED CAMBRIAN ANIMAL
CRAB-LIKE
GRAPTOLITE
GROUPS OF ANIMALS THROUGHOUT WORLDS OCEANS
EURYPTERID
SEA SCORPION
CRINOID
animal
INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS
RELATED TO SEA STARS
LOOK LIKE PLANTS
FORMINIFERA
1 CELLED ORGANISMS W/TINY CALCITE SHELLS
DINOSAUR
ERA
EXTINCT GROUP OF ANIMALS
AMMONITE
animal
CEPHALOPODS
RELEATIVES OF SQUID
HOMINID
MODERN HUMAN
HUMAN-LIKE ANCESTOR
BI-PEDAL
two
WALK UPRIGHT W/ 2 LEGS

HUMANS