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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is different about the P wave of a horse?
It has 2 humps
What can cause sinus bradycardia or arrthymia?
Lack of feed intake
What is atrial fibrillation most commonly associated with in cattle?
GI disease
T or F
Foals can have a PDA murmur (i.e. washing machine) normally for the first few days of life
T or F
Calves can have a PDA murmur (i.e. washing machine)normally for the first few days of life
What is the most common congenital heart defect in horses and cattle?
High ventricular septal defect often associated with tetrology of Fallot
What is the most commonly affected valve with endocarditis in cattle?
What is the most commonly affected valve with endocarditis in horses?
What organism is most commonly associated with endocarditis in cattle?
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
What organism is most commonly associated with endocarditis in horses?
What condition in swine is associated with endocarditis or myocarditis?
Name 6 causes of right heart failure in ruminants (particularly cattle)
1) Lymphosarcoma (right atrium)
2) Endocarditis
3) Pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pneumonia
4) Brisket disease
5) Hardware disease
6) Myocarditis
What is the most common primary heart tumor in large animals?
What is Brisket Disease?
When cattle are moved to a higher elevation, the pulmonary vessels CONSTRICT in response to hypoxia (opposite happens in peripheral tissues)
Grazing on what weed can contribute to Brisket Disease?
Astragalus spp. (Loco weed)
What are 6 ways to get edema?
1) Increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure
2) Decreased interstitial hydrostatic pressure
3) Decreased intravascular colloid oncotic pressure (i.e. decreased protein in the blood)
4) Increased interstitial colloid oncotic pressure
5) Increased vascular surface area capable of fluid transport
6) Increased vascular permeability
What can high vagal tone at rest cause on horses?
Atrial fibrillation, may need tx to convert to normal rhythm
What are 3 causes of atrial fibrillation in cattle?
1) GI disease
2) Footrot
3) Pneumonia
What are 3 DDX for pale streaks in cardiac muscle?
1) Gossypol
2) Ionophore toxicity
3) Vit E / Selenium deficiency
What is 1 DDX for dark cardiac muscle?
What causes mulberry heart disease in pigs?
Vit E / Selenium deficiency
What is the maintenance fluid rate in large animals per day?
50-60 ml/kg/day
Are calves with diarrhea typically alkalotic or acidotic and why?
Acidotic d/t loss of bicarb
Are adult cattle typically alkalotic or acidotic when choosing fluids?
Alkalotic EXCEPT with:
grain overload
severe renal disease
respiratory acidosis (severe pneumonia)
Name 10 antimicrobials that are illegal for extra-label use in food animals.
1) Diethylstilbesterol (DES)
2) Chloramphenicol
3) Nitroimidazoles (metronidazoles, dimetridazole, ipronidazole)
4) Sulfonamides in ADULT dairy cattle except for sulfadimethoxine (albon per label use only)
5) Clenbuterol
6) Dipyrone
7) Fluoroquinolones
8) Glycopeptides (vancomycin)
9) Nitrofurans (no topical application either)
10) Phenylbutazone in adult dairy cattle
Name 7 antimicrobials approved for use in LACTATING diary cattle
1) Penicillin
2) Amoxicillin
3) Ampicillin
4) oxytetracycline (LA 200)
5) Erythromycin
6) Ceftiofur (Naxcel, Excenel)
7) Sulfamethoxine per label
True or False
Gentamicin is not illegal in food aniamls
True - Just discouraged d/t unknown and extended withdrawal times
Name 4 classes of antibiotics that are bacterioCIDAL
1) Beta lactams
2) Fluoroquinolones
3) Gentamicin
4) Lincosamides
Name 4 classes of antibiotics that are bacterioSTATIC
1) Florfenicol
2) Macrolides
3) Sulfonamides
4) Tetracyclines
Name 10 DDX of foot and mouth disease
1) Vesticular stomatitis
2) Swine vesicular disease
3) Vesicular exanthema of swine
4) Foot rot
5) Rinderpest
6) BVD
7) Malignant catarrhal fever
8) Bluetongue
9) IBR
10) Contagious ecthyma
11) Lip and lef ulceration in sheep
What kind of virus if Hog Cholera?