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14 Cards in this Set

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Proteins moving into where contain a specific targeting sequence?
Nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes or endoplasmic reticulum
What do integral proteins contain to remain in the ER membrane?
An ER targeting sequence and one or more "stop transfer sequences"
What is a "regulated secretion" signal? vs. constitutive secretion?
Regulated - causes proteins to be packaged in secretory vesicles and held in teh cytoplasm until a secretion signal is received vs. imeddiately sent to cell surface for secretion.
What signal are lsyosomal enzymes given?
mannonse-6-phosphate
What is the difference b/n HSP70 and HSP60?
HSP 70 - small chaperones tha tbind to hydrophobic regions of unfolded, nascent chains to protect them from proteolysis and held them fold properly using ATP
HSP 60 - very large, barrel-shaped complexes with a sheltered caviety where nascent protein can fol dproperly. Use ATP
What are proteasomes?
Large and barrel-like protease assemblies that degrade protein if they fail to fold properly, become secondarily unfolded or damaged
What must protein be tagged wtih to be recognized and internalized by proteasomes?
Ubiquitin
What are MHC (major-histocompatibility) proteins?
Attach protein fragments from proteasomes and travel from ER to Golgi to membrane and display fragments. Immune cell sniff at fragments and destroy cell if foreign fragments detected.
What are SRPs?
Signal recognition particle - recognizes nascent peptide with ER localization signal (start transfer sequence) brings ribosome, SRP and peptide to ER dock.
What is the major difference b/n N and O- linked glycosylation?
O-glycosylation occurs only the Golgi. Also attaches to Serine or threonine, not asparagine like N-glycosylation.
Where are the M6P-labeled hydrolases recognized?
In the trans-Golgi by an M6P-receptor
Besides N and O-linked glycosylation, what addition protein processing occurs in the Golgi?
1) Attchmnt of sulfate groups to sugars
2) Proteolysis
3) Formation of disulfide bonds and folding of nascent peptides
What is Clathrin?
Coats interior of pits during pinocytosis that facilitates the rounding of the pti into a vesicle that can pinch off from the surface.
What is autophagocytosis?
Housekeeping process in which entire regions of cytoplasm adn organelles are enveloped by cisternae of ER and sealed off, then fuse with mature lysosomes and digested.