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19 Cards in this Set

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Neutrophilia implies
bacterial infection or acute inflammation (1st 24 hr) (e.g. infarction). If severe, also inc in band neutrophils (immature)
Monocytosis implies
acute inflammation (2-3 days), also tb, brucellosis, typhus (rickettsia), salmonella
Lymphocytosis implies
chornic inflammation, viral infections (and some bacterial infections: tb, pertussis), leukemia
Eosinophilia, causes of
NAACP: Neoplastic (hodgkin's lymphoma), asthma, allergy, collagen vascular disease (autoimmune dz, e.g. PAN), parasites
Histamine is produced by
mast cells and basophils
basophilia, causes of
myeloproliferative dz, e.g. chronic myelogenous leukemia
vasoactive amines: names, function, form what cells
fun = inc capillary perm. histamine [ (1) mast cells + (2) basophils by IgE binding antigen, C3a/C5a, physical stim, IL1, other factors] (3) platlets by thrombosis or PAF. Seratonin (platelets)
name 3 important enzymes of the arachadonic acid pathway and their function
Phospholipase A2 releases arachadonic acid from the membrane. COX produces TxA2 (thromboxane A2) in platelets => aggregation, vasoC; prostacyclin (PGI2) in endothelium => inhibit aggregation + vasoD. Lipoxygenase produces leukotrienes (slow reacting substances of anaphylaxis e.g. asthma) and lipoxins (antiinflam?)
Functions of IL1 and TNF?
acute phase responses: 1) systemic inflammation (fever, leukocytosis) 2) hepatic (acute phase protein synth: CRP, complement proteins, fibrinogen, prothrombin, etc.) 3) adhesion molec synth 4) neutrophil degranulation
factor 12a initiates which systems (4)
kinin, intrinsic pathway of coagulation, plasminogen, complement
3 functions of complement system
1) C3a C5a = anaphylatoxins. Mast/basophil degranulation, chemotaxis, lipoxygenase pathway 2) C3b opsinization 3) C5b-9 membrane attack complex => bacteria lysis
define abscess
cavity filled with pus (nphils, cellular debris); often walled off by fibrous tissue
define ulcer
loss of epithelium
chronic granulomatous dz of childhood. Defect, px
NADPH oxidase defect. Decreased H2O2 production. Infections w/ catalase (+) bacteria (bac breaks down own H2O2) but not cat (-) bac (bac's H202 => ROS by myeloperoxidase)
Myeloperoxidase def. Defect, px
myeloperoxidase which converts H2O2 to ROS. Recurrent bacterial infections, also Candida
Chediak Higashi syndrome
defect in lysosomal trafficking. 1) leukocyte defects 2) neutropenia 3) albinism (melanosome trafficking too) 4) C+P neuropathy
Leukocyte Adhesion Defiency type 1 and 2. Defect, px
defects in proteins req for leukocyte adhesion to endothelium => recurrent bacterial infections
Causes of granulomatous inflammation
1) mycobacteriu: tuberculosis and leprae. 2) Fungal infectons: blastomyces dermatitidis, histoplasma capsulatum, coccioides immitis 3) treponema pallidum 4) Bartonella (cat scrath dz)
tenderness 1/3 dist btwn iliac crest and umbilicis. Eponym?
McBurney's point