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75 Cards in this Set

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What is war in relation to foreign policy?
War is one of many clubs of politics, alongside diplomacy, etc.
What is range, lethality and precision?
The key components of any weapons system.
What does predictability mean in War?
Death (see Maskirovka)
Receiving timely intelligence is...
still a major difficulty in modern war.
Nuclear weapons have no need for...
accuracy and precision because their lethality is so great.
It is important to stay mobile because?
Static targets are easily bombed.
CEP stands for? What is it? Defined by?
Circular Error Probable
Is a measure of bombing precision
Defined by a circle within which 50% of bombs fall
PGM stands for? What do they require?
Precision Guided Munitions. Precision Intelligence to achieve accuracy.
What is the RSC? Who started it?
Reconnaissance Strike Complex. A move away from nuke based military. Beginning of RMA. Olgarkov.
What is the recon part of the RSC?
Recon: acquire the target/Intelligence Gathering
What is the Strike part of the RSC? Components? (3)
Strike: need techs to srike target precisely.
Destruction: high lethality on small
Delivery: Stealth, Range (cruise missile)
Control: Communication
What was German Blitzkrieg?
Lightning War. Integration of dive bombers, tanks and radio communications.
How did Blitzkrieg use divebomberS? Why divebomb?
To soften the enemy for tank rush. Blow out dug-in defensive positions. Increased precision of strike.
How did Blitzkrieg use tanks?
Massed formations break through weakpoints in enemy line, encircle and get behind enemy.
Why were radio communication important?
large, complex operation needed radio comm to remain cohesive. Tanks had to talk to one anthoer, divebombers had to talk to tanks, etc.
Giulo Douhet. Beliefs? Key targets?
*Wars fought and won in the air.
*Impossible to defend against bombing attack.
*Comm, gov, ind, trans, morale key targets
*chemical weapons nec. to break morale
Trenchard. Who was he? advocated striking? Morale? Civilians?
*WWI commander RFC
*strike war industries
*Mor effects 20time more powerful than phy.
*Did not want to strike at civilians. except fact. workers.
Mitchell. Doctrine? targets? Errors?
*US general
*strategic bombing in mass formations
*bomber war winning weapon
*focus on infrastructure
*Errors: didn't build fighters to protect bombers
*overestimated precision
Harris. Doctrine?
* bomber harris, head of RFC in WWII
* Night area mass bombardmengt
* city busting with firebombs
How do are the air power philosophies similar?
*each believed in morale effects.
*each believed in striking infrastructure
*each overestimated bombers power
How were the air power philosophies different?
Douhet: no concept on precision really. old stlye trench warfare focus.
Trenchard: no indiscriminate bombing of civs.
Mitchell: precision, daytime mass bombardment
Harris: carpet night bombing of civs/cities
5 ring system? Whose philo? what are the components?
*Warden
1.Leadership
2.System Essentials
3.Infrastructure
4.Population
5.Military
Mitchell. Doctrine? targets? Errors?
*US general
*strategic bombing in mass formations
*bomber war winning weapon
*focus on infrastructure
*Errors: didn't build fighters to protect bombers
*overestimated precision
Harris. Doctrine?
* bomber harris, head of RFC in WWII
* Night area mass bombardmengt
* city busting with firebombs
How do are the air power philosophies similar?
*each believed in morale effects.
*each believed in striking infrastructure
*each overestimated bombers power
How were the air power philosophies different?
Douhet: no concept on precision really. old stlye trench warfare focus.
Trenchard: no indiscriminate bombing of civs.
Mitchell: precision, daytime mass bombardment
Harris: carpet night bombing of civs/cities
5 ring system? Whose philo? what are the components?
*Warden
1.Leadership
2.System Essentials
3.Infrastructure
4.Population
5.Military
5 ring system. Waht does it tell us?
* The enemy is an integrated system, not just military.
* Shows importance of each elemt
Pape. Beliefs? 3 steps?
*strategic air attack is useless.
*only tactical air strikes wil induce coersion of leaders.
1) Denial: of territory control
2)Punishment: bomb industrial centers.
3)Decapitation: Kill leaders.
What is MAD?
Mutually Assured Destruction.
* With nuclear weapons, US and Russia mutually assured to destroy each other in the event of a war
What is precision? Accuracy?
The ability to hit what you aim at. Having the right target.
What is NCW? What is it?
Net Centric Warfare. Networking the military to acheive the OODA loop with efficiency and speed.
HOW does NCW achieve the Observe phase of the OODA loop?
Global Surveillance, Stealth Recon
How does the NCW achieve the Orient Phase of the OODA loop?
Broadband communications
How does the NCW achieve Decision Phase of the OODA loop?
Intensive Data gathering, global comm
How does the NCW achieve the Action phase of the OODA loop?
Precision munitions
Weaknesses of NCW (6)
1) overestimates technology, information superiority
2) dependent on space, electronics
3) High cost
4) Allies left behind
5) Become too powerful
6) People Issues - highly trained, innovative, super intelligent
What is Near precision? Precision? Front Door Precision?
5-30 ft. <3-6ft. <3ft.
What are the stages of the OODA loop? Who invented?
Observe, Orient, Decide, Act. John Boyd.
What is the Observe phase and some example of it?
Observe enemy. Reconnaissance. Itelligence Gathering. Observe self too, and aftermath of operations.
What is the Orient Phase?
Restructuring on the fly to the new reality observed.
What is the Decision phase?
Making the correct decision based on best analysis of info available.
What is the Action phase of the OODA loop?
Excercising the mission of the Decision phase.
What is a Lorenz Beam?
Beam that was adapted into Xverfahren. Originally used to land planes at German airports.
What is X-Verfahren?
1) German's first blind bombing system.
2) used a single beam for path with a cross beam over target.
Problems with x-Vehrfahren? (5)
1) Single flight path.
2) mid-air collissions
3) Signle line makes easy targs
4) beam angle difficult to detect.
5) beam detectable
What is Y-Vehrfahren?
1) Single beam, used pulses to guide a pathfinder. Crew out of loop.
Problem with Y-Vehrfahren? (4)
1) Final 12 miles required straight, level flying path.
2) Req. specialized equip and crews.
3) only one equipped plane
4) Detectable beam
What did Brits do to counter German Navigation Systems? (6)
Night:
1) Decoy fires
2) Beam Bending (close prox false main beams).

Day:
1) Smoke
2) Decoy Targets
3) Dispersal of targs.
4) Camouflage
What is GEE? Strengths (2) and Weaknesses (4)?
British Navigational Aid. hyperbolic grid across Europe.

Stengths:
Couldn't direct direction
Could fly anywhere on the grid

Weaknesses:
not a bombing system
short range (400 miles)
predictable flight path
Germans could use it
OBOE? Strengths and Weaknesses?
Blind bombing system
Used two stations, cat & mouse, to communicate with plane and tell plane its position on the grid.
Strength
Most precise system of war
Weaknesses
could only direct 1 plane at a time
TIS?
Target Indicator System.
Pathfinder plane dropped colored flared on target, rest of planes dropped on flare using SABS targetting system.
What is H2S?
Home Sweet Home. Airborne Radar System. Navigate to target location. Used for acquiring target as well.
Strengths and weaknesses of H2S?
Strength
No Range Constraints.
No Weather Constraints.
Weakness
Detectable
operational late in war
Bombing of Japan in WW-II. Who lead? How Achieved? What kind?
Curtis LeMay. Leapfrog islands to gain airstrips. Firebomb cities.
Cruise Missile
Uses propulsion to maintain a straight flightpath
Ballistic Missile
Follows a ballistic, curved trajectory
V-1 Cruise Missile. Why developed? How launched?
Vengeance Weapon. INS.
Retaliation for Brits dehousing. Ramps.
Advantages of V-1? (3)
Cheap, Easy to produce/perfect, ready for action earlyi n war
What is the V-2? Weaknesses? (6)
Ballistic Missile. Rocket powered. Used INS.
* Expensive
* Difficult to produce
* late operation
* tunneled in ground after strike
* hard to find parts
* high fuel consumption
What is TLAM?
Tomahawk Land Attack Missile. Navy weapon. Cruise missile.
What is CALCM?
Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missile. Air Force Cruise Missile. Used to have Nuke, now conventional weapon.
What are the two different mid-course guidance systems?
INS (Inertial Navigation)
TERCOM (Terrain Comparison)
How does TERCOM work?
An ins system. Compares radar scan of ground to expected information, corrects course based on difference.
How does TERCOM work?
An ins system. Compares radar scan of ground to expected information, corrects course based on difference. Corrects Drift.
What is Terminal Guidance? Why necesarry?
Guidance in last phase of mission (about 1 minute out). Reduces CEP of term guidance even more.
What is DSMAC?
Digital Scene Matching Correlator. Compares observed and expected high-contrast B&W photos. Fuses warhead only when location known.
Weaknesses of DSMAC?
1) dependence on satellites
2) Expensive
3) long mission planning times
4) works only over strong elevation
The aim of Stealth?
Reduce observability, especially to RADAR and Infrared.
How does it reduce radar footprint?
Absorb:
sawtooth wing design captures waves
Radar absorbent materials

Scatter:
F-117 uses faceted design
B2 uses smoothed design
What are smart bombs?
Autonomously guided weapons.
What are EOGBs?
Electro-Optically Guided Bombs.
human guided using visul info provided by cameras. controlled by joystick. can use infrared or optical wavelength for day/night and diferent conditions.
Advantages of EOGBs? (4) Disadvantages? (2)
Long Range. Large Warhead. can be flown in bad weather. course can be altered at last minute.

High cost. Can be affected by things lblock optical/infrared wavelengths.
What is a LGB?
Laser Guided Bomb. Dropped from a plane, seeks a cone of reflected laser energy. uses GPS as a backup.
Advantages of LGB? Disadvantages?
Cheaper than EOGB. Very Precise. Self Guided.

Shorter Range. Laser can be interrupted. oculd be confused by multiple lasers.