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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
detailed steriochemical picture of a molecule; the (R) and (S) configuration at each assymetric carbon atom
absolute configuration
not chiral; same as its mirror image
a carbon atom that is bonded to four different groups
asymmetric carbon atom or
chiral carbon atom
accepted method for designating the absolute configuration of a chirality center ( usually an asymmetric carbon) as either (R) or (S)
Cahn-Ingold-Prelog convention
different from its mirror image
the IUPAC term for an atom holding a set of ligands in a spatial arrangement that is not superimposable on its mirror image
chirality center
a molecule or object that is chiral and can use its own chiralityto differentiate between mirror images
chiral probe
on the same side of a ring or double bond
isomers that differ in their geometric arrangement on a ring or double bond; subclass of diastereomers
cis-trans isomers
the two possible spatial arrangements around a chirality center or other stereocenter
structures that differ only by rotations about single bonds; interconvert at room temperature and are not true isomers
conformers or
isomers that differ in the order that their atoms are bonded
constitutional isomers
rotating the plane of polarized light clockwise (+) or (d)
stereoisomers that are not mirror images
the excess of one enantiomer in a mixture of enantiomers expressed as a percentage of the mixture; similar to optical purity
enantiomeric excess (e.e.)
a pair of non-superimposable mirror-image molecules; mirror-image isomers
a method of drawing an asymmetric carbon atom as a cross; carbon chain is kept along the vertical; horizontal bonds project toward the viewer
Fischer projections
a plane of symmetry through the middle of a molecule, dividing the molecule into two mirror-image halves

* a molecule with an internal mirror plane of symmetry cannot be chiral
internal mirror plane
different compounds with the same molecular formula
rotating the plane of polarized light counterclockwise (-) or (l)
compounds with identical properties except for the direction in which they rotate polarized light
optical isomers
capable of rotating the plane of polarized light
optically active
the specific rotation of a mixture of two enatiomers, expressed as a percentage of the specific rotation of one of the pure enantiomers
optical purity (o.p.)
light composed of waves that vibrate in only one plane
plane-polarized light
an instrument that measures the rotation of plane-polarized light by an optically active compound
mixture of equal quantities of enantiomers, such that the mixture is optically inactive
racemic mixture
experimentally determined relationship between the configurations of two molecules even when absolute configurations are not known
relative configuration
process of separating a racemic mixture into the pure enantiomers
a chiral compound used for separating enantiomers
resolving agent
measure of a compounds ability to rotate the plane of polarized light...
specific rotation
atom that gives rise to stereoisomers when its groups are interchanged; asymmetric carbon atoms and double-bonded carbons in cis-trans alkenes are the most common
study of the three-dimensional structure of molecules
isomers whose atoms are bonded togather in the same order, but they differ in how the atoms are oriented in space
isomers that differ in the order in which their atoms are bonded togather
structural isomers
identical in all respects; three-dimensional positions of all atoms coincide when the molecules are placed on top of each other
opposite sides of a ring or double bond