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20 Cards in this Set

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Why is psychology science, and how can it be distinguished from pseudoscience and folk wisdom?
1.Psychology is based on research evidence, whereas popular opinion is not.

2.Psychobabble confirms existing beliefs and prejudices.

3.Psychology challenges them and deepens our understanding of accepted facts.
What are the 8 critical thinking guidelines that help in the understanding of psychological issues?
1: Ask questions, be willing to wonder

2: Define your terms.

3: Examine the evidence.

4: Analyze assumptions and biases.

5: Avoid emotional reasoning.

6: Don't over simplify.

7: Consider other interpretations.

8: Tolerate uncertainty.
1: "can i recall events from my childhood accurately?"

2: By "childhood" i mean 3 to 12. by events i mean things that happened to me personally.

3: I feeel i recall my 5th bday perfectly, but studies show people often reconstruct events inaccurately.

4: Ive assumed memory is like a tape recorder - perfectly accurate - but maybe this is bias, as it is reassuring.

5: I want the memory to be accurate, but that doesn't mean it is.

6: some of my childhood memories could be accurate, others mistaken and some partly right or wrong.

7: Some memories could be based on what my parents told me later, not of my own recall.

8: i may never know for sure whether some of my childhood memories are real or accurate
Who were the early examples of psychological thnking before it was a formal discipline?
1: Hippocrates (c.460bc-377bc) Greek physician saw connection between brain and behaviour.

2: Stoic Philosophers(c1ad) noted people did not react because of direct events rather their explanation of the events.

3: John Locke (1643-1704) English Philosopher argued the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience.
What is an example that the forerunners of psychology got it completely wrong? An example of their lack of empirical methodology.
Phrenology. A popular 1800s theory inspired by Austrian physician Joseph Gall (1758-1828) Supoosedly bumps and parts of the brain dictated behaviour. A classic psuedoscience - sheer nonsense.
Who is credited with the birth of modern psychology? Why?
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) German trained in philosophy and medicine.

Opened the first laboratory for psychological studies in 1879
What are the 3 early schools of psychological thoughts?
1: Structuralism

2: Funstionalism

3: Psychoanalysis
What are the basic principles of Structuralism?
Structuralism focused on breaking down mental processes (sensations, images and feelings) into the most basic components.

Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection.

In essense structuralists asked what happens when an organism does something. (eg break down all the components of taste when biting into an orange.)
Who were the early forefathers of Structuralism?
1: Wilhelm Wundt, was an advocate of this position.

2: Though it was his student, Edward B. Titchener who first coined the term to describe this school of thought.
What are the basic principles of Functionalism?
Functionalism sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner.

Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior.

In essense functionalists how and why an organsim does something.
Who were the early forefathers of Functionalism?
1: William James(1842-1910) American philosopher, physician and psychologist.

2: Inspired by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) British naturalist who tried not to just list attributes e.g like colour changes on a reptile but also why they changed colour and how.
What are the basic principles of Psychoanalysis?
This school of thought emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior.

That conscious awareness is only the tip of a mental iceburg, the unconscious mind is what is beneath what we see.
Who were the early forefathers of Psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Austrian neurologist
What are the five major psychological perspectives?
1: Biological

2: Learning

3: Cognitive

4: Sociocultural

5: Psychodynamic
How does the biological perspective explain thoughts, feeling and behaviours?

What are the topics of study?
They focus on how bodily events affect responses.

The topics of study are:
The nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, hereditry, evolutionary influences.
Eg Sample finding on violence:

Brain damage caused by birth complications or child abuse might incline some people towards violence
How does the learning perspective explain thoughts, feeling and behaviours?

What are the topics of study?
They focus on how the enviroment and experience affect an organism's actions.

The topics of study are:
a: Behaviorial - enviromental determinants of observable behaviour.

b: Social-Cognitive - enviromental influences, observation and imitation, beliefs and values.
Eg Sample finding on violence:

a: Violence increases when it pays off.

b: Violent role models can influence children to percieve provocation and insult.
How does the cognitive perspective explain thoughts, feeling and behaviours?

What are the topics of study?
They emphaize what goes on in people's heads.

The topics of study are:
Thinking, memory, language, problem solving, perceptions.
Eg Sample finding on violence:

Violent people are often quick to percieve provocation and insult.
How does the sociocultural perspective explain thoughts, feeling and behaviours?

What are the topics of study?
This focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual.

The topics of study are:
a: Social Psychology: social rules and roles, groups and relationships

b: Cultural Psychology: cultural norms, values and expectations.
Eg Sample finding on violence:

a: People are often more aggressive in a crowd than they would be on their own.

b: Cultures based on herding rather than agriculture tend to train boys to be aggressive.
How does the psychodynamic perspective explain thoughts, feeling and behaviours?

What are the topics of study?
This deals with unconscious dynamics within individulas such as inner forces, conflicts or instinctual energy.

The topics of study are:
unconscious thoughts,desires and conflicts
Eg Sample finding on violence:

A man who murders a prostitute may have unconscious conflicts about his mother and about sexuality.
What role did humanism and feminism play in shaping the development of modern psychology?
The approaches do not fit into the five perspectives, but they have:

1: Influenced the questions researchers ask.

2: Impacted the methods used.

3: Influenced the awareness of bias in the field.
What are the main differences between basic and applied psychology?
1: Basic - is research that seeks knowledge just to have an answer.

2: Applied - research that is concerned with the practical use of knowledge